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Marie Hardin, Bu Zhong, and Erin Whiteside

U.S. sports operations have been described as newsroom “toy departments,” at least partly because of their deviation from journalistic norms. Recently, however, more attention has focused on issues of ethics and professionalism; the failure of sports journalists to adequately cover steroid use in Major League Baseball has also directed critical attention to their roles and motives. This study, through a telephone survey of journalists in U.S. newsrooms, examines sports reporters’ practices, beliefs, and attitudes in regard to ethics and professionalism and how their ethics and practice relate. Results indicate that reporters’ attitudes toward issues such as voting in polls, taking free tickets, gambling, and becoming friends with sources are related to their views of public-service or investigative journalism. In addition, friendships with sources are linked to values stereotypically associated with sports as a toy-department occupation. These results suggest that adherence to ethical standards is linked to an outlook that embraces sports coverage as public service.

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Edited by Mary O’Sullivan and Nell Faucette

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Mahsa Jafari, Vahid Zolaktaf, and Gholamali Ghasemi

-year follow-up. It will enable us to investigate the matter more systematically and closely examine if injury risk is reduced when a firefighter’s FMS score improves. Compliance With Ethical Standards M.J., V.Z., and G.G. declare that they have no conflict of interest. All procedures followed were in

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Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch

sexual harassment prevention ( Levine, 2018 ). Organizations can conduct agency-wide sexual harassment training to emphasize staying out of trouble legally and upholding moral and ethical standards of behavior that shun sexual misconduct ( O’Leary-Kelly & Bowes-Sperry, 2001 ). Leaders can make a

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Ilkka Heinonen, Jukka Kemppainen, Toshihiko Fujimoto, Juhani Knuuti, and Kari K. Kalliokoski

contribution of the personnel of the Turku PET Centre for their excellent assistance during the study and the subjects who participated. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and

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Sergio Lara-Bercial, John Bales, Julian North, Ladislav Petrovic, and Guillermo Calvo

regulating and developing coaching. • Formal occupational and ethical standards for coaches. • Coaching qualifications aligned with and included within national qualifications frameworks. • Involvement of higher education in the education of coaches as well as in the creation of an evidence-based knowledge

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Morteza Sadeghi, Gholamali Ghasemi, and Mohammadtaghi Karimi

participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (approved by Isfahan University of medical sciences, ethical committee) and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards (approved by Isfahan

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Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Claire Gudex, Kjeld Andersen, Anders Bo Bojesen, and Uffe Jørgensen

online questionnaire was considered as informed consent. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable

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Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor

project Question 1 Ability to work independently Question 2 Ability to collaborate with other researchers Question 3 Understanding of the research process Question 4 Self-confidence Question 5 Sense of accomplishment Question 6 Interest in your field Question 7 Knowledge of ethical standards Question 8

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Ibrahim M. Altubasi

by the institutional review board at the University of Jordan Hospital, and they were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed