Ethnic minority female physical education (PE) teachers who work in predominantly White schools may face multiple, intersecting forms of oppression due to inherent underlying notions of whiteness, which position the embodiment of a racialized identity as “other” ( Burden, Harrison, & Hodge, 2005
Mara Simon and Laura Azzarito
Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee and Sukho Lee
aged 2–19 years between 1999 and 2014. 4 Eliminating the health disparities is addressed as one of the goals of Healthy People 2010. PA behaviors among low-income and ethnic minority (LIEM) children and youths must be addressed as obesity and sedentary lifestyles in childhood frequently track into
Emily Lees, Wendell C. Taylor, Joseph T. Hepworth, Karina Feliz, Andrea Cassells and Jonathan N. Tobin
Despite the numerous benefits of physical activity, older adults continue to be more sedentary than their younger counterparts, and sedentary behavior is more prevalent among older racial and ethnic minorities than among Whites. This study used the nominal group technique (NGT) to examine participants’ perceptions of what neighborhood environmental changes would encourage greater physical activity for older African American and Hispanic women. Participants age 50–75 years were recruited from 2 urban community health clinics. Nine NGT sessions (45 participants) were conducted. The women were asked what changes in their neighborhood environment would encourage them to become more physically active. Responses to the research question were tabulated, and qualitative analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Major categories were physical environment changes, safety, and activities/social support. Although the physical environment received the greatest number of points, concerns for personal safety cut across categories. Participants indicated the need for more facilities in which to be active.
Kerem Shuval, Tammy Leonard, James Murdoch, Margaret O. Caughy, Harold W. Kohl III and Celette Sugg Skinner
Numerous studies have documented adverse health effects from prolonged sitting and TV viewing. These sedentary pastimes are linked to increased risk for obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. No studies, however, have examined these associations specifically in low-income, minority communities in the US.
This cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted in South Dallas, TX. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sedentary behaviors (self-report) and measures of objectively assessed obesity (BMI, waist circumference).
Among a low-income, ethnic-minority population, there were independent and significant associations between higher levels of sitting time, computer use, and transit time with elevated BMI (P < .05). Elevated waist circumference was also linked to increased sitting time, computer use, and transit time, yet without statistical significance.
Increased time spent in passive-leisure activities is a risk marker for obesity in this population.
Daniel F. Perez, Paul G. Ritvo, Patrick E. Brown, Eric Holowaty and Chris Ardern
The role of social-environmental factors in physical activity (PA) within lower income and ethnic minority populations is understudied. This study explored correlates of age-related PA and perceived walkability (PW).
Cross-sectional data (N = 401 women; ≥18 y) were collected within the Jane-Finch community in Toronto, Ontario using questionnaires. Generalized additive models, an extension to multiple regression, were used to estimate effect sizes and standard errors.
Significant interactions between native language and car access (CA) were observed in PA variation across the lifespan. Individuals were evenly distributed across 4 comparison groups: 29.2% English-NoCA, 24.1% English-CA, 20.7% Non-English-NoCA, and 26.0% NonEnglish-CA. Risk of sedentariness increased with age for native English speakers > 50 years, but appears unaffected by age for other groups. English speakers without CA < 60 years appear least likely to be sedentary, followed by English speakers with CA. In general, an active individual at the 75th percentile of social support for exercise would have 1.62 (CI: 1.22−2.17) times the MET-Hours of PA than an active individual at the 25th percentile of SSE.
English language facility and car access moderate relationships of social-environmental factors and PA. Further investigation is required to better understand correlates of PA for women in this demographic.
Valeria J. Freysinger
Jennifer Pharr and Nancy L. Lough
Studies have shown participation in sport is lower among girls than boys, decreases as students matriculate through high school, is lowest among Black and Hispanic girls and has a positive relationship with SES. With sport recognized as a contributor to physical activity and health in adolescents, consideration of diminishing rates of participation appears warranted. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns related to differences in self-reported sport participation between genders, ethnic groups, grades and SES.
This study was a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data collected for a sport interest survey. All students in grades 8–11 attending middle and high schools were provided an opportunity to participate in the survey. Data from 49,832 students were analyzed.
Among the participants, Black girls participated more and White girls participated less than expected. Black boys participated more while White and Asian boys participated less than expected. Reported sport participation was high compared with national data when analyzed by gender and ethnic group. Sport participation was higher in low SES schools compared with high SES schools.
The importance of sport as a source of physical activity in underserved groups is significant.
David X. Marquez, Ruby Hoyem, Louis Fogg, Eduardo E. Bustamante, Beth Staffileno and JoEllen Wilbur
To date, little is known about the physical activity (PA) levels and commonly reported modes of PA of older Latinos, and this information is critical to developing interventions for this population. The purpose of the current study was to examine PA assessed by self-report and accelerometer and to assess the influence of acculturation, gender, and age on the PA of urban community-dwelling older Latino adults.
Participants were self-identified Latinos, primarily women (73%), and individuals aged 50 to 59 (31%), 60 to 69 (30%), and 70+ (39%). PA was measured with an accelerometer and the Community Healthy Activity Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) PA questionnaire.
Men reported engaging in, and objectively participated in, significantly more minutes of moderate/vigorous PA than women, but women reported greater light intensity household PA. Latinos aged 50 to 59 engaged in significantly more accelerometer-assessed PA than Latinos aged 60 to 69 and 70+, respectively. The majority of participants did not meet the PA Guidelines for Americans. No differences in PA were demonstrated by acculturation level. Older Latino men and women reported walking and dancing as modes of leisure PA.
These findings suggest PA interventions should be targeted toward older Latinos, taking into account gender and age.
Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode and Marilyn S. Nanney
using self-reported PA measures suggest that white adolescents are more active than racial/ethnic minorities. 20 , 21 Other studies using accelerometers to objectively measure activity do not observe similar racial/ethnic disparities and find more activity among blacks compared with whites, at least
David X. Marquez, Eduardo E. Bustamante, Edward McAuley and Dawn E. Roberts
Latinos have the lowest leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) rates. However, measurement of only LTPA might underestimate total physical activity. This study compares the objective physical activity of Latinos reporting high or low levels of LTPA and also compares gender differences.
Data were obtained from 148 Latinos (n = 83 women, n = 65 men). Freedson cut points were employed to determine daily minutes of activity.
Latinos reporting high LTPA engaged in more daily minutes of vigorous and very vigorous activity than Latinos reporting low LTPA (P values < .05). There was no difference in daily minutes of moderate-intensity activity (P = .12), with both groups of Latinos meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. Men engaged in more daily minutes of moderate activity than women (P < .01).
Many Latinos met physical activity guidelines even when reporting low levels of LTPA. Future studies should determine whether equivalent health benefits are achieved by meeting guidelines through LTPA and non-LTPA.