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Mara Simon and Laura Azzarito

Ethnic minority female physical education (PE) teachers who work in predominantly White schools may face multiple, intersecting forms of oppression due to inherent underlying notions of whiteness, which position the embodiment of a racialized identity as “other” ( Burden, Harrison, & Hodge, 2005

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Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee and Sukho Lee

aged 2–19 years between 1999 and 2014. 4 Eliminating the health disparities is addressed as one of the goals of Healthy People 2010. PA behaviors among low-income and ethnic minority (LIEM) children and youths must be addressed as obesity and sedentary lifestyles in childhood frequently track into

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Emily Lees, Wendell C. Taylor, Joseph T. Hepworth, Karina Feliz, Andrea Cassells and Jonathan N. Tobin

Despite the numerous benefits of physical activity, older adults continue to be more sedentary than their younger counterparts, and sedentary behavior is more prevalent among older racial and ethnic minorities than among Whites. This study used the nominal group technique (NGT) to examine participants’ perceptions of what neighborhood environmental changes would encourage greater physical activity for older African American and Hispanic women. Participants age 50–75 years were recruited from 2 urban community health clinics. Nine NGT sessions (45 participants) were conducted. The women were asked what changes in their neighborhood environment would encourage them to become more physically active. Responses to the research question were tabulated, and qualitative analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Major categories were physical environment changes, safety, and activities/social support. Although the physical environment received the greatest number of points, concerns for personal safety cut across categories. Participants indicated the need for more facilities in which to be active.

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Kerem Shuval, Tammy Leonard, James Murdoch, Margaret O. Caughy, Harold W. Kohl III and Celette Sugg Skinner

Background:

Numerous studies have documented adverse health effects from prolonged sitting and TV viewing. These sedentary pastimes are linked to increased risk for obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. No studies, however, have examined these associations specifically in low-income, minority communities in the US.

Methods:

This cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted in South Dallas, TX. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sedentary behaviors (self-report) and measures of objectively assessed obesity (BMI, waist circumference).

Results:

Among a low-income, ethnic-minority population, there were independent and significant associations between higher levels of sitting time, computer use, and transit time with elevated BMI (P < .05). Elevated waist circumference was also linked to increased sitting time, computer use, and transit time, yet without statistical significance.

Conclusions:

Increased time spent in passive-leisure activities is a risk marker for obesity in this population.

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Daniel F. Perez, Paul G. Ritvo, Patrick E. Brown, Eric Holowaty and Chris Ardern

Background:

The role of social-environmental factors in physical activity (PA) within lower income and ethnic minority populations is understudied. This study explored correlates of age-related PA and perceived walkability (PW).

Methods:

Cross-sectional data (N = 401 women; ≥18 y) were collected within the Jane-Finch community in Toronto, Ontario using questionnaires. Generalized additive models, an extension to multiple regression, were used to estimate effect sizes and standard errors.

Results:

Significant interactions between native language and car access (CA) were observed in PA variation across the lifespan. Individuals were evenly distributed across 4 comparison groups: 29.2% English-NoCA, 24.1% English-CA, 20.7% Non-English-NoCA, and 26.0% NonEnglish-CA. Risk of sedentariness increased with age for native English speakers > 50 years, but appears unaffected by age for other groups. English speakers without CA < 60 years appear least likely to be sedentary, followed by English speakers with CA. In general, an active individual at the 75th percentile of social support for exercise would have 1.62 (CI: 1.22−2.17) times the MET-Hours of PA than an active individual at the 25th percentile of SSE.

Conclusions:

English language facility and car access moderate relationships of social-environmental factors and PA. Further investigation is required to better understand correlates of PA for women in this demographic.

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Valeria J. Freysinger

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Melissa Bopp, Sara Wilcox, Marilyn Laken, Steven P. Hooker, Deborah Parra-Medina, Ruth Saunders, Kimberly Butler, Elizabeth A. Fallon and Lottie McClorin

Background:

Physical activity (PA) participation offers many benefits especially among ethnic groups that experience health disparities. Partnering with faith-based organizations allows for a more culturally tailored approach to changing health behaviors.

Methods:

8 Steps to Fitness was a faith-based behavior-change intervention promoting PA among members of African American churches. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine differences between the intervention group (n=72) and comparison group (n = 74). Health (resting blood pressure, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, fasting blood glucose), psycho-social (PA self-efficacy, social support, enjoyment, self-regulation, depression), and behavioral variables (PA, diet) were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-months. Repeated measures ANCOVAs tested changes across time between groups.

Results:

At 3-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in body mass index, waist circumference and social support than the control group. At 6-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and depressive symptoms. There was notable attrition from both the intervention (36%) and the comparison group (58%).

Conclusions:

This study was conducted in a real-world setting, and provided insight into how to deliver a culturally-tailored PA intervention program for African Americans with a potential for dissemination.

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Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode and Marilyn S. Nanney

using self-reported PA measures suggest that white adolescents are more active than racial/ethnic minorities. 20 , 21 Other studies using accelerometers to objectively measure activity do not observe similar racial/ethnic disparities and find more activity among blacks compared with whites, at least

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Rebecca E. Hasson

activity levels among ethnic-minority youth are not maintained throughout adolescence and into adulthood ( USDHHS , 2008 ). African American and Latino adults report significantly lower levels of physical activity participation than White adults ( USDHHS , 2008 ). Hence, there is a critical need to

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Krista Schroeder, Martha Y. Kubik, Jiwoo Lee, John R. Sirard and Jayne A. Fulkerson

and in model 2 was mean minutes of sedentary time per day. Both models controlled for age (continuous), BMI z -score (continuous), socioeconomic status (receipt of public assistance: yes/no), and race/ethnicity (member of racial/ethnic minority group: yes/no) because they were associated with PA or