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Physical Activity, Measures of Obesity, and Cardiometabolic Risk: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Paul A. McAuley, Haiying Chen, Duck-chul Lee, Enrique Garcia Artero, David A. Bluemke, and Gregory L. Burke

Background:

The influence of higher physical activity on the relationship between adiposity and cardiometabolic risk is not completely understood.

Methods:

Between 2000–2002, data were collected on 6795 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants. Self-reported intentional physical activity in the lowest quartile (0–105 MET-minutes/week) was categorized as inactive and the upper three quartiles (123–37,260 MET-minutes/week) as active. Associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference categories, stratified by physical activity status (inactive or active) with cardiometabolic risk factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, upper quartile of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] for population, and impaired fasting glucose or diabetes) were assessed using logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and current smoking.

Results:

Among obese participants, those who were physically active had reduced odds of insulin resistance (47% lower; P < .001) and impaired fasting glucose/diabetes (23% lower; P = .04). These associations were weaker for central obesity. However, among participants with a normal waist circumference, those who were inactive were 63% more likely to have insulin resistance (OR [95% CI] 1.63 [1.24–2.15]) compared with the active reference group.

Conclusions:

Physical activity was inversely related to the cardiometabolic risk associated with obesity and central obesity.

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Addressing Disparities in Physical Activity Participation Among African American and Latino Youth

Rebecca E. Hasson

, Bradley, Houts, McRitchie, & O’Brien, 2008 ). This equates to a 75% drop during the critical period of adolescence ( Nader et al., 2008 ). Children’s physical activity also varies by ethnicity, but evidence of systematic disparities in physical activity participation is less consistent ( Troiano et

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Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Frailty in Older Migrant Women From Ethnically Diverse Backgrounds: A Mixed-Methods Study

Diana Castaneda-Gameros, Sabi Redwood, and Janice L. Thompson

, Kirkland, Andreou, & Kirkwood, 2015a ; Da Silva et al., 2016 ; Marques et al., 2014 ), this association has not been investigated in older migrant women from ethnically diverse backgrounds. Examining this is important, since older adults (≥55 years) from minority ethnic backgrounds, especially women from

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Preseason Body Composition Adaptations in Elite White and Polynesian Rugby Union Athletes

Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad, Damian J. Marsh, Karen Hind, and Gary J. Slater

LM and greater LM:FM ratios ( Rush et al., 2004 ; Swinburn et al., 1996 ; Swinburn et al., 1999 ). To date, no study has explored differences in physique adaptations to training by ethnicity in RU. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate preseason team and individual athlete DXA body

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Are Movement Behaviors and Fundamental Motor Skills Associated With Fitness and Fatness in Early Childhood? Findings From the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey

Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola, and Jing Wang

, 30 ). It is also known that children from low-income families and ethnic minority groups are more likely to be identified as “at risk” for developmental delays (ie, delays in motor skills) ( 14 , 39 ). Preschoolers are at a crucial stage to develop and learn mature patterns of fundamental motor

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Physical Activity and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, and Caucasians: The Multiethnic Cohort

Astrid Steinbrecher, Eva Erber, Andrew Grandinetti, Claudio Nigg, Laurence N. Kolonel, and Gertraud Maskarinec

Background:

Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for diabetes; however, little is known about this association across ethnic groups with different diabetes risk. Therefore, we evaluated the association between physical activity and diabetes and potential effect modification by ethnicity in the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort.

Methods:

Participants, aged 45 to 75 years, were enrolled by completing a questionnaire on demographics, diet, and self-reported weekly hours of strenuous sports, vigorous work, and moderate activity. Among the 74,913 participants (39% Caucasian, 14% Native Hawaiian, 47% Japanese American), 8561 incident diabetes cases were identified by self-report, a medication questionnaire, and through health plan linkages. Cox regression was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) while adjusting for known confounders.

Results:

Engaging in strenuous sports was inversely related to diabetes risk with HRs (4+ hours/week vs. never) of 0.67 (95%CI: 0.57–0.79) in women and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.72–0.88) in men. In stratified analyses, the inverse association was consistent across ethnic groups. The inverse association of vigorous work with diabetes was limited to men, while beneficial effects of moderate activity were observed only in Caucasians.

Conclusions:

These findings support a role of high-intensity physical activity and ethnic-specific guidelines in diabetes prevention.

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Pain and Ethnicity in Athletes

Barton P. Buxton, David H. Perrin, Ronald K. Hetzler, Kwok W. Ho, and Joe H. Gieck

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between ethnicity and acute pain response in male athletes. Subjects included 93 male athletes (age = 18.65 ± .58 years) of differing ethnicity. Each subject performed a Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and was evaluated for pain threshold and pain tolerance times. Two one-way analyses of variance were performed to analyze the data. The results indicated that significant differences existed in pain tolerance times between ethnic groups (p<.05). However, no differences were observed in pain threshold times. These findings support the existence of a difference in pain tolerance between ethnic groups in collegiate athletes.

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Are Correlates of Physical Activity in Adolescents Similar Across Ethnicity/Race and Sex: Implications for Interventions

Jonathan M. Miller, Mark A. Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa N. Laska, Toben F. Nelson, and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

adolescents often report less MVPA than white adolescents. 3 – 5 Differences in MVPA between the sexes and between ethnicities/races invite the question of whether correlates of MVPA, organized within the social–ecological framework of personal, social, and environmental correlates, 6 also differ

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Physical Activity and Mortality Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in the United States

Ming Wen, Lifeng Li, and Dejun Su

Background:

Physical activity (PA) has been routinely linked to lower all-cause mortality, yet extant research in the United States is primarily based on nonrepresentative samples. Evidence is scant on the relative and independent merits of leisure-time (LTPA) versus non-leisure-time (NLTPA) activities and how the PA-mortality link may vary across racial-ethnic-gender groups.

Methods:

Data were from Health and Retirement Study which began in 1992 collecting data on individuals aged 51–61 years who were subsequently surveyed once every 2 years. The current study assessed group-specific effects of LTPA and NLTPA measured in 1992 on mortality that occurred during the 1992–2008 follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to examine the PA-mortality link.

Results:

Net of a wide range of controls, both LTPA and NLTPA showed a gradient negative relation with mortality. No gender-PA interaction effects were evident. Some interaction effects of PA with race-ethnicity were found but they were weak and inconsistent. The mortality reduction effects of PA seemed robust across racial-ethnic-gender groups.

Conclusions:

Regardless of personal background, PA is a major health promoting factor and should be encouraged in aging populations. More research is needed to assess relative merits of different types and domains of PA.

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Double Punch to the Glass Ceiling: Career Experiences and Challenges of Ethnic Minority Female Athletic Directors

Natalie M. Welch, Jessica L. Siegele, and Robin Hardin

women’s basketball team ( Wright, 2018 ). Ethnic minority women perhaps face double the obstacles to ascend to leadership positions (e.g., ADs) in college athletics as they have to negotiate both the challenges of ethnic minorities and of women in the White, male-dominated world of collegiate athletics