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Shushu Chen and Laura Misener

region. As a result, there has been an increasing interest in the concept of event leverage (e.g.,  Chalip, 2004 ; Chalip, Green, Taks, & Misener, 2017 ; Misener, McGillivray, McPherson, & Legg, 2015 ; O’Brien, 2006 ; Smith, 2009 ). The core argument underlying this concept is that through strategic

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Laura Misener, Landy Di Lu and Robert Carlisi

With the rising importance of delivering positive social outcomes from hosting a large-scale sport event, sport management scholars and practitioners have shown growing interest in the concept of event leveraging ( Chalip, 2006 , 2017 ; Chen & Misener, 2019 ; Karadakis, Kaplanidou, & Karlis

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Vassilios Ziakas and Sylvia Trendafilova

couple of specific models and concepts related to event leverage ( Chalip, 2004 ; O’Brien & Chalip, 2008 ) and event portfolio management ( Ziakas, 2014 ) that would be extremely helpful in guiding him through his first task. First things first, Ian knew that he had to learn the town’s socio

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Laura Misener, Simon Darcy, David Legg and Keith Gilbert

Over the last decade a great deal of work has examined major sport event legacies and event leverage. Much of this work has involved Olympic studies and this paper seeks to add to the body of knowledge surrounding major sport event legacies by examining the largely overlooked area of the Paralympic Games. The Paralympic Games are the second largest multisport event after the Olympic Games depending upon which parameters are used and since Sydney 2000 there has been an ‘operational partnership’ where bid cities are required to host both Games. Yet, few studies have evaluated the comparative outcomes, legacies and event leverage that Paralympic games have generated. This paper addresses this absence by conducting a thematic analysis of Paralympic legacy research. The thematic analysis used a combination of keywords involving event legacy across 13 major academic databases. Of the 43 articles identified as having Paralympic legacy related content only 13 articles empirically investigated Paralympic legacy. In reviewing the research, it is noted that the bulk of the research has focused on Summer Paralympic Games with little interest in the Winter Paralympic Games. The major findings for legacy-based research include: infrastructure; sport; information education, and awareness; human capital; and managerial changes. However, while these findings may seem congruent with major event legacies frameworks conceptually, an examination of the detailed findings shows that Paralympic legacy research is isomorphic and adds a new component to existing legacy dimensions.

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Nico Schulenkorf and Deborah Edwards

Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context—an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.

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Marijke Taks and Laura Misener

In this case, a local sport tourism officer has been asked to prepare a recommendation for Evex City Council regarding which types of events the city should bid for, based on their public policy agenda of enhancing tourism for economic development purposes and stimulating sport participation for residents. A questionnaire, a codebook, and a data set from two events, an international figure skating event and a provincial gymnastics event, are provided to assist in making a decision. The data set includes the spectators’ identification with and motives for attending the events, tourism activities in which they participated, and some sociodemographic variables. Analyses of the data and interpretation of the results should assist the sport tourism officer in providing accurate recommendations to policymakers. Theories and frameworks that underpin this case include public policy schemas; identity, motives, and tourism behavior of event attendees; sport participation outcomes from sport events; leveraging; and event portfolios.

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Ramon Spaaij and Nico Schulenkorf

Recent research has examined how sports events and sport-for-development projects can create, sustain, and maximize positive social impacts for local communities. This article takes this debate forward by arguing that the cultivation of safe space is a key ingredient of sport-for-development management and community event leverage. Safe space is conceptualized as a multidimensional process that involves physical, psychological/affective, sociocultural, political, and experimental dimensions. Drawing on empirical findings from Sri Lanka, Israel, and Brazil, the article shows how these dimensions of safe space operate and interact in practice, and identifies practical strategies that sport managers, policymakers, and practitioners can use to cultivate safe spaces in and through sports projects and events.

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* 33 4 261 274 10.1123/jsm.2018-0265 jsm.2018-0265 Event Leveraging in a Nonhost Region: Challenges and Opportunities Shushu Chen * Laura Misener * 33 4 275 288 10.1123/jsm.2018-0210 jsm.2018-0210 Air Pollution and Attendance in the Chinese Super League: Environmental Economics and the Demand for

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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd and Brian Mihalik

event leverage . International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1 ( 4 ), 296 – 304 . 10.1108/17506180710824181 O’Brien , D. , & Chalip , L. ( 2007b ). Sport events and strategic leveraging: Pushing towards the triple bottom line . Cambridge, MA : CABI . O'Leary , Z

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Thomas J. Aicher, Richard J. Buning and Brianna L. Newland

immersed in the sport are also likely to want to explore the destination, event directors should work closely with DMOs to cross-promote tourism activities and events. Leveraging the broader event portfolio of the host location ( Ziakas, 2014 ) to enable athletes to cocreate experiences beyond the event