This case addresses the events leading up to the cancellation of the 2012 New York City Marathon in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. The case highlights the importance of making fair and timely decisions. The case is assembled based on newspaper accounts of the circumstances that led to New York City’s Mayor Bloomberg declaring the 2012 marathon would be held and then two days later canceling the event. The facts that were available to Mayor Bloomberg are presented in such a way that students can consider and analyze what they would have done and when, and how this may or may not differ from what actually occurred. Most importantly, the case highlights the decision-making process that many sport and event managers will encounter in the field when a weather-related event occurs in the midst of a planned athletic event. Consequently, the case provides students with an opportunity to critically examine the following: 1) how a sport organization should respond to a crisis; 2) the impact of decision-making on various event stakeholders; 3) the ethics involved in decision-making; and 4) how sport and event managers should respond to public criticism. The case is intended for use in classes focused on event management, sport ethics, and public relations.
Whitney W. Marks, Tiesha R. Martin and Stacy Warner
Adam Cohen and Calvin Nite
, & Quinlan, 2017 ). In a study reflecting on the impact of experiential learning in a sport event management course and sport leadership course, McDonald and Spence ( 2016 ) emphasized positive outcomes such as students’ vertical development and students’ preparation to handle complex decision making. While
Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer, Sheranne Fairley and Lea Rossi
Journal of Hospitality and Event Management, 1 ( 2 ), 111 – 134 . doi: 10.1504/IJHEM.2014.066987 Bang , H. , & Ross , S.D. ( 2009 ). Volunteer motivation and satisfaction . Journal of Venue and Event Management, 1 ( 1 ), 61 – 77 . Bang , H. , Won , D. , & Kim , Y. ( 2009 ). Motivations
Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd and Brian Mihalik
of the triple bottom line . Event Management, 11 ( 1–2 ), 13 – 22 . doi: 10.3727/152599508783943282 Heere , B. , Van Der Manden , P. , & Van Hemert , P. ( 2015 ). The South Africa World Cup: The ability of small and medium firms to profit from increased tourism surrounding mega
Sport management as an academic discipline requires a balance of theory and practice through endowing students with knowledge, critical thinking skills, and expertise (Cuneen & Parks, 1997). Professionals call for students being “prepared” for the demands of the sport industry through the acquisition of a quality education and a significant amount of hands-on experience before entering the work force. Researchers have recommended utilizing experiential pedagogical strategies to not only provide the hands-on engagement but also to challenge students to use their knowledge for the public good (e.g., Bruening, Madsen, Evanovich, & Fuller, 2010; Chalip, 2006; McKelvey & Southall, 2008; Pauline & Pauline, 2008). It also supports the recent trend to educate students in the world beyond the confines of the college campus. Boyer (1996) noted engaging outside the confines of campus will not only give students hands on experience but also, cultivate a student’s cognitive and moral development, which is often underestimated in higher education.
Mikihiro Sato, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk
Limited research has examined psychological involvement change using a longitudinal design. This study explored stability and change in the three facets of psychological involvement—pleasure, centrality, and sign—that occurred over a 2-year period and examined key behavioral correlates of the observed change. Data were collected three times through online surveys from participants (N = 482) of an annual 10-mile running event in the United States. Latent growth modeling analyses revealed that, on average, the levels of pleasure, centrality, and sign in running slightly decreased over time. Growth mixture modeling analyses offer evidence that different patterns of change exist within each facet of psychological involvement. The findings further indicate that changes in the number of events participated in each year are the most important behavioral correlates of psychological involvement change. The results provide sport managers with implications for promoting long-term engagement with the activity through event participation and postevent phases.
Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame J.A. Agyemang
How sport organizations manage interorganizational relationships (IR) in response to industry uncertainty is a relevant question for sport managers. Yet, despite its importance, to date, little is known about how an uncertain industry influences the creation of products or how organizations might improve their market position through IR. This study uses the historical method and Oliver’s six IR determinants to understand the interaction between the bowl system of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision and IR on various performance metrics, status, and new product development. In sum, the findings point to patterns of successful IR among the various tiers of bowl games and their partners through (a) conference agreements, (b) television network agreements, and (c) corporate/title sponsors. Notably, many bowl games managed to flourish and some even improved their status; however, the findings also allude to episodes of failure and indicate sport organizations rich in resources may be slower to establish IR because of resource buffers. Finally, the authors show the bowl industry produced new products via strategic alliances when certain conditions are met regarding asymmetry, reciprocity, and efficiency. Furthermore, the authors contribute to the literature on IR in sport by discussing implications for sport managers.
Ceyda Mumcu and Kimberly Mahoney
When individuals need to make a decision, they often face alternatives and some uncertainty. Identifying alternatives and anticipating outcomes in a systematic way provides value in better decision-making. Decision trees help to clarify the choices, risks, monetary gains, and other information involved in the decision. As a result, managers can make an informed decision when choosing the alternative that provides the best net gain and whether the net gain is worthwhile to pursue. As such, this case presents a scenario in which the sport marketing manager of the local sports commission is working with the convention center to bring a sporting event to the city in order to enhance the city’s image and generate positive economic impact. The manager is faced with evaluating three alternatives (Event A, Event B, or neither) and making a recommendation to the sports commission and convention center executives regarding which event to pursue, if any. This case provides an opportunity for students to practice using this strategic management tool to assist in systematic decision-making while investigating the event bidding process.
Ryan K. Zapalac, John J. Miller and Kelsey C. Miller
Julie Tyler was recently hired as President of the Sacramento River Cats, a Triple-A affiliate of the San Francisco Giants. With a little over one month on the job, Julie encounters a situation she has never had to deal with when an earthquake strikes her facility. The River Cats are not severely impacted by the earthquake, but a rival organization (the Fresno Grizzlies; Triple-A affiliate of the Houston Astros) experiences some fairly serious damage and injuries. Julie has to decide whether to modify the schedule to meet the needs of the Grizzlies, to appease some of her other stakeholders with varying interests, and/or pursue a competitive advantage for her organization. Julie makes the decision to review a similar situation for guidance on her decision. The situation she decides to employ is a series relocation that the Houston Astros had to make to Tampa, Florida following the devastation created by Hurricane Harvey in August 2017. Her decision has to be made expeditiously as their next series with the Grizzlies takes place in four days.