This case study focuses on planning and leveraging sport events for community-based sport tourism and economic development. It is presented from the point of view of a sport event/marketing coordinator (Ian) within the Convention and Visitors Bureau (CVB) of the fictional rural community of Panorama. He has been assigned to write a report about the potential of organizing (and leveraging) a new motorcycle event tapping into the unparalleled success and experience of two car open road races that the town hosts. Ian is a recent sport management graduate who has just been hired by CVB and hence knows little about the community and its events. He begins preparing his report by collecting information and taking notes in order to understand the community dynamics affecting events and learn from the races with the purpose of identifying what would be the best means to attain benefits from the proposed new event. Drawing upon the theoretical underpinnings of sport event leverage and multi-purpose event portfolios, the case provides the opportunity for students to apply these tenets on a realistic context, taking them through a research path of gradual exploration and discovery of issues and means entailed in event portfolio planning and leveraging.
Vassilios Ziakas and Sylvia Trendafilova
Ramon Spaaij and Nico Schulenkorf
Recent research has examined how sports events and sport-for-development projects can create, sustain, and maximize positive social impacts for local communities. This article takes this debate forward by arguing that the cultivation of safe space is a key ingredient of sport-for-development management and community event leverage. Safe space is conceptualized as a multidimensional process that involves physical, psychological/affective, sociocultural, political, and experimental dimensions. Drawing on empirical findings from Sri Lanka, Israel, and Brazil, the article shows how these dimensions of safe space operate and interact in practice, and identifies practical strategies that sport managers, policymakers, and practitioners can use to cultivate safe spaces in and through sports projects and events.
Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd and Brian Mihalik
Although the concept of social leverage has been a key component of research on mega sport events, authors know little about how the initial partnership between stakeholders of the event allows for social leveraging prior to the event. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand what intentions stakeholders of a newly formed interorganizational relationship for the 2019 Federation of International Basketball Associations World Cup have toward social leverage initiatives and whether they coordinate such efforts with other stakeholders. Data were collected through two rounds of interviews with high-ranking leaders in the stakeholder organizations. The authors found that social leverage is not part of the early planning for the event because (a) different stakeholders/organizations have little knowledge of social leverage, (b) the media amplifies current values and beliefs of the interorganizational relationship stakeholders, and (c) the Chinese culture has an implicit/explicit influence on the interorganizational relationship. The study contributes to our understanding of challenges surrounding social leveraging.
Whitney W. Marks, Tiesha R. Martin and Stacy Warner
This case addresses the events leading up to the cancellation of the 2012 New York City Marathon in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. The case highlights the importance of making fair and timely decisions. The case is assembled based on newspaper accounts of the circumstances that led to New York City’s Mayor Bloomberg declaring the 2012 marathon would be held and then two days later canceling the event. The facts that were available to Mayor Bloomberg are presented in such a way that students can consider and analyze what they would have done and when, and how this may or may not differ from what actually occurred. Most importantly, the case highlights the decision-making process that many sport and event managers will encounter in the field when a weather-related event occurs in the midst of a planned athletic event. Consequently, the case provides students with an opportunity to critically examine the following: 1) how a sport organization should respond to a crisis; 2) the impact of decision-making on various event stakeholders; 3) the ethics involved in decision-making; and 4) how sport and event managers should respond to public criticism. The case is intended for use in classes focused on event management, sport ethics, and public relations.
Real Madrid Football Club is today the richest sport team in the world and the third most valuable sport brand, according to the latest rankings (e.g., Deloitte, 2010; Forbes 2009). This scholarly commentary proposes the application of a relationship management model of building long-lasting relationships with fans as the main key of Real Madrid’s success. Results of this study highlight that, under the presidency of Florentino Pérez, a public relations approach has been integrated into every strategic decision including the recruitment of players with media appeal; the use of event planning, Internet, social media, promotional tours, and publications; and the display of Real Madrid’s own audiovisual media. The adoption of this model has proven successful despite poor sports results.
Nico Schulenkorf and Deborah Edwards
Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context—an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.
Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Liz A. Wanless, Sarah M. Aldridge and Daniel W. Jones
learning was integrated, a brief overview of the experiential project must first be presented. Experiential Project Event Planning The sport event management course was framed around planning and managing a fund-raising golf event in the local community, which took place during a 16-week semester (see
Shushu Chen and Laura Misener
participation ( Misener et al., 2015 ; Taks, Misener, Chalip, & Green, 2013 ). These studies outline how multidimensional positive impacts for host communities can be generated by adopting a strategic approach to event planning and management. The literature suggests several key points for event leverage that
Christopher M. McLeod, Haozhou Pu and Joshua I. Newman
privilege economic interests over environmental ones ( Lenskyj, 2000 ; Mansfield, 2009 ; Pitter, 2009 ). Contributing factors include: imbalanced relationships between environmental stakeholders ( Kearins & Pavlovich, 2002 ); undemocratic tendencies in event planning ( Hayes & Horne, 2011 ); ineffective
Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield
al., 2018 ). Food choices at event/championship Athletes do not have direct influence on what food is served at events. Plan ahead by knowing what will be served and augmenting choices with one’s own food. All you can eat buffets (e.g., Olympic Village) are often the norm and boredom and/or stress eating