The observation that sport represents a unique context has been widely discussed, but social scientists have done little to empirically examine the moral adaptations of sport participants. In the present study, the divergence between levels of moral reasoning used to discuss hypothetical dilemmas set in sport and in everyday life contexts was investigated among 120 high school and collegiate basketball players, swimmers, and nonathletes. Protocols were scored according to Haan’s interactional model of moral development. It was found that levels of moral reasoning used to discuss sport dilemmas were lower than levels characterizing reasoning about issues within an everyday life context. Findings were discussed in terms of the specific social and moral context of sport experience.
Brenda Jo Bredemeier and David L. Shields
Christina Huy, Simone Becker, Uwe Gomolinsky, Thomas Klein, and Ansgar Thiel
Few middle-aged and elderly people get enough exercise from sports or leisure-time physical activity. Therefore, the impact of everyday physical activity on health is a matter of interest. The main objective of this study was to establish whether bicycle use in everyday life is positively associated with health. A sample of 982 randomly selected men and 1,020 women age 50–70 were asked in a computer-assisted telephone interview to provide information including a self-assessment of their health and physical activity. Self-assessed health correlates positively with bicycle use in everyday life (OR = 1.257; 95% CI: 1.031–1.532). Likewise, people who regularly cycle for transport are less likely to have medical risk factors (OR = 0.794; 95% CI: 0.652–0.967). This negative correlation is not diminished when sporting activity is controlled for. This indicates that positive effects of physical activity on risk factors can be also achieved solely by integrating more physical activity into routine everyday life.
Jochem Kotthaus, Matthias Schäfer, Nikola Stankovic, and Gerrit Weitzel
gradually lean toward a more mundane and everyday life–based approach. We then summarize our methodological foundation and how we proceeded. In this case study, we concentrate solely on the Podgorica event. We present our findings and, by doing so, adapt Julia Sonnevend’s exceptional work on iconic global
Colm Hickey and Martin Roderick
In contrast to research, which privileges the notion of an exclusive athletic identity, we argue that the identity management of professional athletes is influenced by the expectations of audiences and the motivational weight of ‘possible selves’ in explaining career transitions from ‘sports work’. Qualitative vignette interviews were conducted with 10 male participants (ages 18–26 years) on three separate occasions (30 interviews). All interviewees had experienced a career transition from Premier League football in the UK. By integrating Goffman’s (1971) dramaturgical analogy and Markus and Nurius’s (1986) concept of possible selves we illustrate the way athletes manage their identities to explain how understandings of career transitions are linked to social audiences and whether they dramatically realize and legitimize future possible selves.
Jørgen Skotte, Mette Korshøj, Jesper Kristiansen, Christiana Hanisch, and Andreas Holtermann
The aim of this study was to validate a triaxial accelerometer setup for identifying everyday physical activity types (ie, sitting, standing, walking, walking stairs, running, and cycling).
Seventeen subjects equipped with triaxial accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) at the thigh and hip carried out a standardized test procedure including walking, running, cycling, walking stairs, sitting, and standing still. A method was developed (Acti4) to discriminate between these physical activity types based on threshold values of standard deviation of acceleration and the derived inclination. Moreover, the ability of the accelerometer placed at the thigh to detect sitting posture was separately validated during free living by comparison with recordings of pressure sensors in the hip pockets.
Sensitivity for discriminating between the physical activity types sitting, standing, walking, running, and cycling in the standardized trials were 99%–100% and 95% for walking stairs. Specificity was higher than 99% for all activities. During free living (140 hours of measurements), sensitivity and specificity for detection of sitting posture were 98% and 93%, respectively.
The developed method for detecting physical activity types showed a high sensitivity and specificity for sitting, standing, walking, running, walking stairs, and cycling in a standardized setting and for sitting posture during free living.
Ezequiel Morsella, Anthony G. Velasquez, Jessica K. Yankulova, Yanming Li, Christina Y. Wong, and Dennis Lambert
action selection, specifically for the skeletal-muscle output system, which is the effector system for what in everyday life is called voluntary behavior. Action selection, as when one pushes one lever versus another lever, is distinct from motor control/motor programming ( Proctor & Vu, 2010
Florence Lebrun, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins, and Sheelagh Rodgers
.g., active and resourceful everyday life), and gain some inner peace ( Biringer et al., 2016 ). Alexander et al. ( 2009 ), for example, suggested that strategies such as positive thinking, talking to someone, or even spirituality could counteract hopelessness, isolation and despair in people with suicidal
R. Dale Sheptak Jr. and Brian E. Menaker
sports industry. It is difficult to know how the current crisis will affect the nature of sport event workers’ jobs. These jobs are integral to the implementation of sporting events and serve as the foundation for many livelihoods. As restrictions are lifted on businesses and other facets of everyday
Katherine M. Jamieson
In this paper, the author explores the usefulness of Chicana feminist scholarship for sport studies. Gloria Anzaldua’s concept of mestizaje, Maria Lugones’s concept of coalescence, and Chela Sandoval’s concept of differential consciousness are relied upon to assert the relevance of Chicana scholarship for sport studies. More specifically the paper focuses on the usefulness of such scholarship for identifying the ways that citizen-subjects both align with and resist dominant ideologies in everyday life. Interviews with former and current softball athletes of various Latina/o ethnicities are used to illustrate the occupation of a middle space and the usefulness of a mestiza sport studies.
Raymond L. Schmitt
The introduction of “replacement teams” into the social world of NFL football during the 1987 strike stimulated a laminated language, a language that transformed traditional meanings by linking varying social definitions to one another. Emergent content analysis of extensive newspaper, sport magazine and newsmagazine, and live television and radio accounts was used to inductively study this language. Power, media, and social structure impacted on the various language terms that were created. Laminated language protected, rejected, accepted, satirically extended, and integrated definitions. Various ways in which the recognition of laminated language may be used to enhance the use of Goffman’s framing concepts and leads in the sociological study of everyday life are offered.