these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. Although an array of supplements are marketed for the enhancement of sports
Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke
Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li and Matthew Curtner-Smith
-Hammond & Bransford, 2005 ; Kennedy, 2016 ; Ward, 2016 ). Mirroring the larger educational community, there have been calls for sport pedagogists to develop this kind of evidence-based practice for physical educators to employ ( Hastie, 2016 ; Institute of Medicine, 2013 ; McKenzie & Lounsbery, 2013 ; Ward, 2013
Siobhain McArdle and Phil Moore
This article highlights four key principles of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and proposes situations where these tenets would be relevant from an applied sport psychology perspective. To achieve this aim, a case study of an athlete with a dysfunctional perfectionist mindset is employed. We conclude with possible research directions in applied sport psychology informed by CBT. These recommendations include the need to further develop an evidence based formulation system and the relevance of building a repertoire of “evidence-based” behavioral experiments to improve practice.
Zella E. Moore
The primary purpose of this article is to expand the discussion about the role of science, clinical thinking, the state of the discipline, and the manner in which evidence-based practice may aid in the development of the field of sport psychology. Rejecting pseudoscientific principles and embracing sound scientific standards of research and practice will result in an increasingly fresh and vibrant field from which greater innovation and evolution can occur. This innovation will inevitably lead to a renewed commitment to theory building, as the evolving scientific database will drive new ways of thinking about the myriad of issues presented by athletic clientele. By embracing the evidence-based practice philosophy, not only will sound scientific advancements emerge, but most importantly, the overall well-being of our athletic clientele will be enhanced.
Trudy L. Moore-Harrison, Mary Ann Johnson, Mary Ellen Quinn and M. Elaine Cress
This study examined the feasibility of implementing the EnhanceFitness Program (formerly Lifetime Fitness Program), an evidence-based exercise program, at congregate-meal sites that generally serve low-income older adults.
A 12-week aerobic and strength training exercise program was held at senior centers 3 times a week.
The mean age of the 31 participants was 73.5 years ± 6.7 years (60–86). Participants’ compliance with attending the exercise class was 74%. Paired t tests were used to evaluate change after the intervention. Three out of six components of the Senior Fitness Test increased significantly after the exercise intervention (P < .003). Three out of the eight self-reported health concepts of the SF-36 demonstrated significant improvement after the exercise intervention (P < .003).
These data indicate that an evidence-based exercise program can be successfully implemented in this population.
Greg Reid, Marcel Bouffard and Catherine MacDonald
Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five beliefs are individualization, critical thinking, self-determination, program effectiveness, and multifactor complexity. The research model includes conceptualize the problem, conduct research on the process of the problem, conceptualize and specify the intervention, evaluate intervention outcomes, evaluate intervention processes, determine person-by-treatment interactions, determine context-dependent limitations, and investigate factors related to intervention adoption maintenance. The eight steps are explained with reference to two research programs that used a randomized control group design.
Emma C. Neupert, Stewart T. Cotterill and Simon A. Jobson
deal with existing TMS problems would further support elite sports in optimizing their TMS. 6 By understanding the perspectives of end-users, new evidence-based strategies can be developed to improve user engagement. TMS buy-in and success is more likely when these opinions are addressed, as they can
Yeshayahu Shayke Hutzler
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a growing movement in the health and educational disciplines that recommends emphasis on research outcomes during decision making in practice. EBP is made possible through evidence based research (EBR), which attempts to synthesize the volume and scientific rigor of intervention effectiveness. With the purpose of assessing the impact of this movement on adapted physical activity, this article (a) describes EBP/EBR and outlines its methodological development, (b) provides an historical perspective of EBP/EBR in APA, (c) examines EBR quality indicators in the review literature published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, (d) identifies and synthesizes thematic domains appearing in these review articles, and (e) discusses practical examples of professional issues in APA arising from a lack of EBR.
Marlana J. Kohn, Basia Belza, Miruna Petrescu-Prahova, Christina E. Miyawaki and Katherine H. Hohman
This study examined participant demographic and physical function characteristics from EnhanceFitness, an evidence-based physical activity program for older adults. The sample consisted of 19,964 older adults. Participant data included self-reported health and demographic variables, and results for three physical function tests: chair stand, arm curls, and timed up-and-go. Linear regression models compared physical function test results among eight program site types. Participants were, on average, 72 years old, predominantly female, and reported having one chronic condition. Residential site participants’ physical function test results were significantly poorer on chair stand and timed up-and-go measures at baseline, and timed up-and-go at a four-month follow-up compared with the reference group (senior centers) after controlling for demographic variables and site clustering. Evidence-based health-promotion programs offered in community settings should assess demographic, health, and physical function characteristics to best serve participants’ specific needs, and offer classes tailored to participant function and ability while maintaining program fidelity.
, international, and multilateral) and in all 3 branches (executive/administrative, legislative, and judicial). Much has been made in recent years about the use of science in the policymaking process. The importance of evidence-based policymaking at the US federal government level was recognized in 2016, when