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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim, and Louise M. Burke

these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. Although an array of supplements are marketed for the enhancement of sports

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Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li, and Matthew Curtner-Smith

-Hammond & Bransford, 2005 ; Kennedy, 2016 ; Ward, 2016 ). Mirroring the larger educational community, there have been calls for sport pedagogists to develop this kind of evidence-based practice for physical educators to employ ( Hastie, 2016 ; Institute of Medicine, 2013 ; McKenzie & Lounsbery, 2013 ; Ward, 2013

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Johanna S. Rosén, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Keith Tolfrey, Anton Arndt, and Anna Bjerkefors

in 2018 approved the sport’s new sport-specific evidence-based classification system. The system was created in collaboration with international classifiers from the International Canoe Federation (ICF) and is based upon research undertaken by Rosén et al. ( 2019 ). In the Paralympic Para Va'a event

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Edgar Schwarz, Liam D. Harper, Rob Duffield, Robert McCunn, Andrew Govus, Sabrina Skorski, and Hugh H.K. Fullagar

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the pedagogical approach of integrating experience, values, and research information to guide or support a decision-making process and is commonly used in professional fields such as, for example, medicine 1 or education. 2 In sport science, this has been

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Siobhain McArdle and Phil Moore

This article highlights four key principles of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and proposes situations where these tenets would be relevant from an applied sport psychology perspective. To achieve this aim, a case study of an athlete with a dysfunctional perfectionist mindset is employed. We conclude with possible research directions in applied sport psychology informed by CBT. These recommendations include the need to further develop an evidence based formulation system and the relevance of building a repertoire of “evidence-based” behavioral experiments to improve practice.

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Greg Reid, Marcel Bouffard, and Catherine MacDonald

Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five beliefs are individualization, critical thinking, self-determination, program effectiveness, and multifactor complexity. The research model includes conceptualize the problem, conduct research on the process of the problem, conceptualize and specify the intervention, evaluate intervention outcomes, evaluate intervention processes, determine person-by-treatment interactions, determine context-dependent limitations, and investigate factors related to intervention adoption maintenance. The eight steps are explained with reference to two research programs that used a randomized control group design.

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Trudy L. Moore-Harrison, Mary Ann Johnson, Mary Ellen Quinn, and M. Elaine Cress

Background:

This study examined the feasibility of implementing the EnhanceFitness Program (formerly Lifetime Fitness Program), an evidence-based exercise program, at congregate-meal sites that generally serve low-income older adults.

Methods:

A 12-week aerobic and strength training exercise program was held at senior centers 3 times a week.

Results:

The mean age of the 31 participants was 73.5 years ± 6.7 years (60–86). Participants’ compliance with attending the exercise class was 74%. Paired t tests were used to evaluate change after the intervention. Three out of six components of the Senior Fitness Test increased significantly after the exercise intervention (P < .003). Three out of the eight self-reported health concepts of the SF-36 demonstrated significant improvement after the exercise intervention (P < .003).

Conclusion:

These data indicate that an evidence-based exercise program can be successfully implemented in this population.

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Zella E. Moore

The primary purpose of this article is to expand the discussion about the role of science, clinical thinking, the state of the discipline, and the manner in which evidence-based practice may aid in the development of the field of sport psychology. Rejecting pseudoscientific principles and embracing sound scientific standards of research and practice will result in an increasingly fresh and vibrant field from which greater innovation and evolution can occur. This innovation will inevitably lead to a renewed commitment to theory building, as the evolving scientific database will drive new ways of thinking about the myriad of issues presented by athletic clientele. By embracing the evidence-based practice philosophy, not only will sound scientific advancements emerge, but most importantly, the overall well-being of our athletic clientele will be enhanced.

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Rachel Tinius, Kolbi Edens, Kim Link, M. Susan Jones, Scott Lyons, Tatum Rebelle, Kevin J. Pearson, and Jill Maples

of which have safe and comfortable options for pregnant women). The purpose of this study was to compare PA levels, beliefs, and motivation regarding PA during pregnancy between rural women assigned to an intervention (including evidence-based educational materials and access to local resources) and

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Emma C. Neupert, Stewart T. Cotterill, and Simon A. Jobson

deal with existing TMS problems would further support elite sports in optimizing their TMS. 6 By understanding the perspectives of end-users, new evidence-based strategies can be developed to improve user engagement. TMS buy-in and success is more likely when these opinions are addressed, as they can