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Kyle Paquette and Pierre Trudel

instructor-centered (IC) to LC approaches, this study seeks to explore if and how these trends are manifested by examining the evolution of a coach education program of a long-standing sport that is rich in history and claims to have a LC program. Table 1 Assessment of the CDC Program Relative to the Degree

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Sebastián Feu, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez and Sergio Ibáñez

considered the beginning of the evolution of Spanish coach training. The first legislative reference to the training of sport coaches in Spain after democracy was restored was published in 1980 with the General Law of Physical Culture and Sport, where the High Council for Sport (CSD by its Spanish initials

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Vishveshwar R. Mantha, António J. Silva, Daniel A. Marinho and Abel I. Rouboa

The aim of the current study was to analyze the hydrodynamics of three kayaks: 97-kg-class, single-rower, flatwater sports competition, full-scale design evolution models (Nelo K1 Vanquish LI, LII, and LIII) of M.A.R. Kayaks Lda., Portugal, which are among the fastest frontline kayaks. The effect of kayak design transformation on kayak hydrodynamics performance was studied by the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The steady-state CFD simulations where performed by application of the k-omega turbulent model and the volume-of-fluid method to obtain two-phase flow around the kayaks. The numerical result of viscous, pressure drag, and coefficients along with wave drag at individual average race velocities was obtained. At an average velocity of 4.5 m/s, the reduction in drag was 29.4% for the design change from LI to LII and 15.4% for the change from LII to LIII, thus demonstrating and reaffirming a progressive evolution in design. In addition, the knowledge of drag hydrodynamics presented in the current study facilitates the estimation of the paddling effort required from the athlete during progression at different race velocities. This study finds an application during selection and training, where a coach can select the kayak with better hydrodynamics.

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Frank Rife, Shirley Shute and Patt Dodds

Although many observation instruments have been developed in physical education, few have enjoyed such widespread use in such a short time as the Academic Learning Time in Physical Education (ALT-PE) model. Not only has this observation system been used in a variety of research settings, but it has undergone an evolution in concept and coding categories. What does this do to the conceptual underpinnings of this observation system? Will the newer version yield similar or different kinds of information? This article attempts to answer such questions by comparing the two versions on the same set of videotaped physical education classes. Results demonstrate that versions I and II both provide similar information about students’ opportunities to learn physical education skills, yet each system has some advantages over the other. Either version can be a useful and appropriate research tool depending on the research question(s) being asked.

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Urbain Claeys

This paper deals with the evolution of the concept of sport and the changing sport participation patterns in Europe. The concept of sport has evolved under the influence of the “Sports for All” philosophy. The entire Sports for All campaign has helped open up the definition of sport. Its borders have been shifted, both for participants and scientists. There are now more sports than ever, and more physical activities are considered sports. Sport participation is a result of a complex set of factors: facilities and organizations, patterns of sport socialization, personal motivations, and also the current changes taking place in society. In this discussion, special attention is paid to the relationship between sport socialization and sport participation patterns.

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Wang Jiahong, Ping Xiang, Zhang Dazhi, Weidong Liu and Xiaofeng Gao

Physical education (PE) undergraduate programs in higher education in China have evolved over the last 100 years. As a result, a comprehensive system of physical education undergraduate majors in higher education has been established in today’s colleges/universities in China. The large number of students who have completed a physical education undergraduate major have greatly contributed to the development of physical education and sports in China. In this article, we reviewed the evolution of physical education undergraduate majors in higher education in China according to five historical eras: (a) the early period of New China, (b) the Cultural Revolution period, (c) the early period of reform and opening up, (d) the period of socialist market economy exploration, and (e) the 21st century era. We also systematically examine the structures, goals, and courses of the physical education undergraduate majors in higher education in China. Finally, we provide in-depth analysis of the development of the physical education undergraduate majors through the examination of their guiding principles, goals, and curriculum design, which might serve as a reference for further enhancing the reform of the curricular design of the physical education undergraduate majors in higher education during the current era.

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Maithe Cardoso de Araújo and Kathrin A.M. Mießen

The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of competitiveness in elite women’s soccer, comparing the goal difference mean between the first FIFA Women’s World Cup (W1991) and FIFA Women’s World Cup 2011 (W2011), twenty years later. Analogous Men’s World Cups (M1990 and M2010) and the first one (M1930) were analyzed for comparative purposes. A total of 192 matches were taken into account and their final result was obtained through official match reports. The overall goal difference (GD) was 1.6, with GD of one occurring 44.3%. Percentage of matches finished with a GD of more than three was 30.7% in W1991 and only 6.3% in W2011. Mean of GD in W2011 was significantly lower than in W1991 (1.38 ± 1.10 vs. 2.81 ± 1.96, U = 226.0, z = -3.085, p = .002), while between M1990 and M2010 it did not differ statistically (1.21 ± 1.05 vs. 1.23 ± 1.23, U = 1639.5, z = -0.146, p = .884). In contrast to the comparisons to W1991, differences between W2011 and M2010 as well as M1990 were not significant. However, GD in W2011 was significantly lower than in the M1930. The results demonstrated that elite women’s soccer has shown a notorious development with regard to the competitiveness, approaching the status already achieved by men. This fast progress represents new challenges for the sports sciences and football associations.

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Antonio García de Alcaraz, David Valadés and José M. Palao


To assess the evolution of the volleyball’s game demands throughout players’ development in men’s volleyball.


A total of 150 sets and 6.671 rallies were analyzed. The sample was composed of 30 sets each by under-14, under-16, under-19, national senior, and international senior teams (1.291, 1.318, 1.310, 1.372, and 1.380 rallies for each category, respectively). Sets included in the sample were stratified and then randomly selected. The variables studied included play time, rest time, rallies played, jumps, hits, types of ball contact, types of game interruptions, performance of the game phases, and performance of the actions. Student t and Mann Whitney U tests were used to analyze specific differences between categories.


The results showed significant reductions in the play times of the rally (from 8.91 to 6.79 s) and the set (6 min 23 s to 4 min 30 s), significant increases in the rest times of the rally (19.64 to 26.53 s) and the set (13 min 44 s to 20 min 27 s), and a significant increase in the number of jumps per set (113.5 to 181.3). Significant improvements in the reception performance (1.57 to 2.45 out of 3), attack performance (2.13 to 2.67 out of 4), and side-out-phase success (48.4% to 69.6%) were found. Throughout the players’ development, data show an increase in the speed, intensity, and efficacy of the side-out phase.


The findings provide reference values to guide athletes’ development and to monitor training and matches both physically and technically tactically.

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Philip Furley and Geoffrey Schweizer

The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents’ nonverbal behavior influence athletes’ confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes’ nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants’ confidence estimations were influenced by opponents’ score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes’ confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes’ confidence.

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Tom Martinek and Michael A. Hemphill

used in a variety of settings outside of school hours. The evolution of TPSR to alternative settings was driven in part by Don’s efforts to connect with youth who were alienated from traditional structures such as schools along with his feelings of being marginalized in the multifaceted area of school