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Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle and Jamie Poolton

-Jones ( 2010 ) posited that high-approach affective states (e.g., anger, excitement) result in attentional narrowing, whereas low-approach affective states (e.g., dejection or sadness, happiness) result in broadening of attentional focus. Specifically, positive high-approach affective states (e.g., excitement

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Mark Mierzwinski, Philippa Velija and Dominic Malcolm

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA), like the majority of relatively violent sports, has mainly been organized around the capabilities of the male body. However various indices suggest that women’s engagement with MMA is growing. The purpose of this paper is to offer an analysis of women’s involvement in MMA using a figurational sociological approach. In doing so, we draw on interview data with “elite” female mixed martial artists to explore the extent to which females within MMA experience a specifically gendered “quest for excitement.” The paper further illustrates how the notion of “civilized bodies” can be used to interpret the distinctly gendered experiences of shame in relation to fighting in combat sports, the physical markings incurred as a consequence, and perceptions of sexual intimacy in the close physical contact of bodies. In so doing this paper provides the first figurationally-informed study of female sport involvement to focus explicitly on the role of violence in mediating social relations, while refining aspects of the figurational sociological approach to provide a more adequate framework for the analysis of gender relations.

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Renate M. Leithäuser

highest priority, and, by focusing on this goal, they may be susceptible to lacking attention or even attitude in matches in the group phase. While there is disappointment when the personally favored team is knocked out, the general excitement and media interest seem to be getting even bigger when

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Marc V. Jones, Andrew M. Lane, Steven R. Bray, Mark Uphill and James Catlin

The present paper outlines the development of a sport-specific measure of precompetitive emotion to assess anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Face, content, factorial, and concurrent validity were examined over four stages. Stage 1 had 264 athletes complete an open-ended questionnaire to identify emotions experienced in sport. The item pool was extended through the inclusion of additional items taken from the literature. In Stage 2 a total of 148 athletes verified the item pool while a separate sample of 49 athletes indicated the extent to which items were representative of the emotions anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Stage 3 had 518 athletes complete a provisional Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) before competition. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 22-item and 5-fac-tor structure provided acceptable model fit. Results from Stage 4 supported the criterion validity of the SEQ. The SEQ is proposed as a valid measure of precompetitive emotion for use in sport settings.

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Natalie Skinner and Neil Brewer

The influence of negative emotions such as anxiety on athletes’ preparation and performance has been studied extensively. The focus of this review is on more adaptive approaches to competition such as the experience of positive emotion and beneficial perceptions of emotion. Evidence on the antecedents and adaptive consequences of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for research and practice in a sport context are suggested. We focus on the cognitive appraisal of challenge as a significant antecedent of both positive emotion and beneficial perceptions of emotion. A theoretical model of beneficial and harmful perceptions of emotion is presented which incorporates appraisals of challenge, coping expectancies, and valence (positive vs. negative) of emotion. Research that supports the model is reviewed, and implications for research, coaching, and training in the sport context are suggested.

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T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh

consumption experiences in her work. Based on the event context of study here, five emotions—boredom, discontent, excitement, joy, and pride ( Richins, 1997 )—are identified as relevant. In the following, we will briefly define the emotions used in this study. Boredom can be described as feelings of

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James Du, Heather Kennedy, Jeffrey D. James and Daniel C. Funk

the PSEs. Entertainment benefits This motivational benefit represents the extent to which PSE consumption experiences can provide stimulation, fun, and excitement through episodes of service touchpoints (e.g., water stations and post-event activations) and atmospheric environment (e.g., cheer zone

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Lena Fung

The motives for participating in competitive sports among male and female elite disabled athletes from different countries have not been studied. Similarities and differences were therefore examined in the rating of importance of the seven motive factors of fitness, team atmosphere, skill development, excitement and challenge, friendship, achievement and status, and energy release. The countries studied included the U.S., Great Britain, and Japan. Data were collected during the Seoul Paralympics from 15 male and 15 female track athletes ages 20–30 from each country. All subjects competed in wheelchairs and met the eligibility criteria of the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation. The instrument used was a questionnaire designed by Gould, Feltz, and Weiss (1985) to examine motives for participating in competition. There were significant differences among athletes from the three countries in the motive factors of fitness, team atmosphere, and excitement and challenge. Gender differences were found in the motive factors of friendship as well as achievement and status.

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Kenneth Sheard

This study takes an activity, birdwatching, which would appear to fall into the category of leisure activity, and argues using Norbert Elias’s theory of civilizing processes that birdwatching incorporates many of the characteristics of “civilized” sport. The focus is not on birdwatching per se but upon specific types of birdwatching activity: birding and twitching. The suggestion that birding is symbolic hunting is examined, and it is argued that the link between a relatively benevolent and scientific interest in birds and the “real” sport of hunting is historically much closer than often recognized. It is further suggested that the post-war popularization of birdwatching in Britain led to its routinization and a decline in its excitement-generating properties. Competitive birding restored some of the activity’s sport-like excitement, but birding was itself routinized and supplemented by twitching, an even more sport-like activity.

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Eldon E. Snyder

This case study analyzes a group of college athletes who were involved in a series of larcenies. A focal point of the study is that these athletes did not fit the usual profile of deviants who would commit large-scale crimes. Furthermore, the athletes in question were apparently not committing the crimes for material gain. Differential interpretations that are given to explain the athletes’ behaviors include defective character traits, the use of alcohol, peer pressure, and the quest for excitement. These interpretations and explanations are discussed within a broader interpretive model of behavior.