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Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle, and Jamie Poolton

-Jones ( 2010 ) posited that high-approach affective states (e.g., anger, excitement) result in attentional narrowing, whereas low-approach affective states (e.g., dejection or sadness, happiness) result in broadening of attentional focus. Specifically, positive high-approach affective states (e.g., excitement

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Mark Mierzwinski, Philippa Velija, and Dominic Malcolm

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA), like the majority of relatively violent sports, has mainly been organized around the capabilities of the male body. However various indices suggest that women’s engagement with MMA is growing. The purpose of this paper is to offer an analysis of women’s involvement in MMA using a figurational sociological approach. In doing so, we draw on interview data with “elite” female mixed martial artists to explore the extent to which females within MMA experience a specifically gendered “quest for excitement.” The paper further illustrates how the notion of “civilized bodies” can be used to interpret the distinctly gendered experiences of shame in relation to fighting in combat sports, the physical markings incurred as a consequence, and perceptions of sexual intimacy in the close physical contact of bodies. In so doing this paper provides the first figurationally-informed study of female sport involvement to focus explicitly on the role of violence in mediating social relations, while refining aspects of the figurational sociological approach to provide a more adequate framework for the analysis of gender relations.

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Renate M. Leithäuser

highest priority, and, by focusing on this goal, they may be susceptible to lacking attention or even attitude in matches in the group phase. While there is disappointment when the personally favored team is knocked out, the general excitement and media interest seem to be getting even bigger when

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Marc V. Jones, Andrew M. Lane, Steven R. Bray, Mark Uphill, and James Catlin

The present paper outlines the development of a sport-specific measure of precompetitive emotion to assess anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Face, content, factorial, and concurrent validity were examined over four stages. Stage 1 had 264 athletes complete an open-ended questionnaire to identify emotions experienced in sport. The item pool was extended through the inclusion of additional items taken from the literature. In Stage 2 a total of 148 athletes verified the item pool while a separate sample of 49 athletes indicated the extent to which items were representative of the emotions anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Stage 3 had 518 athletes complete a provisional Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) before competition. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 22-item and 5-fac-tor structure provided acceptable model fit. Results from Stage 4 supported the criterion validity of the SEQ. The SEQ is proposed as a valid measure of precompetitive emotion for use in sport settings.

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Natalie Skinner and Neil Brewer

The influence of negative emotions such as anxiety on athletes’ preparation and performance has been studied extensively. The focus of this review is on more adaptive approaches to competition such as the experience of positive emotion and beneficial perceptions of emotion. Evidence on the antecedents and adaptive consequences of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for research and practice in a sport context are suggested. We focus on the cognitive appraisal of challenge as a significant antecedent of both positive emotion and beneficial perceptions of emotion. A theoretical model of beneficial and harmful perceptions of emotion is presented which incorporates appraisals of challenge, coping expectancies, and valence (positive vs. negative) of emotion. Research that supports the model is reviewed, and implications for research, coaching, and training in the sport context are suggested.

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T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie, and Wang Suk Suh

consumption experiences in her work. Based on the event context of study here, five emotions—boredom, discontent, excitement, joy, and pride ( Richins, 1997 )—are identified as relevant. In the following, we will briefly define the emotions used in this study. Boredom can be described as feelings of

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James Du, Heather Kennedy, Jeffrey D. James, and Daniel C. Funk

the PSEs. Entertainment benefits This motivational benefit represents the extent to which PSE consumption experiences can provide stimulation, fun, and excitement through episodes of service touchpoints (e.g., water stations and post-event activations) and atmospheric environment (e.g., cheer zone

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Sarah Deck, Brianna DeSantis, Despina Kouali, and Craig Hall

and coping (see Figure  1 ). Emotional Reaction Athletes identified a variety of emotions both “positive” and “negative” when discussing their partner’s play. The most common “negative” emotions were frustration and anger, while the most common “positive” emotion was excitement. Anger as an emotion

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Erianne A. Weight, Elizabeth Taylor, Matt R. Huml, and Marlene A. Dixon

Thousands of young professionals are drawn to the allure of the sport industry as an avenue to pursue a career aligning with their fan interests and within a field known through media portrayals of celebrity, action, and excitement. Indeed, the sport industry has steadily grown over the last 50

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Kenneth Sheard

This study takes an activity, birdwatching, which would appear to fall into the category of leisure activity, and argues using Norbert Elias’s theory of civilizing processes that birdwatching incorporates many of the characteristics of “civilized” sport. The focus is not on birdwatching per se but upon specific types of birdwatching activity: birding and twitching. The suggestion that birding is symbolic hunting is examined, and it is argued that the link between a relatively benevolent and scientific interest in birds and the “real” sport of hunting is historically much closer than often recognized. It is further suggested that the post-war popularization of birdwatching in Britain led to its routinization and a decline in its excitement-generating properties. Competitive birding restored some of the activity’s sport-like excitement, but birding was itself routinized and supplemented by twitching, an even more sport-like activity.