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Sasha Gorrell and Drew A. Anderson

, which may exacerbate this vulnerability. One such factor may be exercise identity, which has been described as the extent to which exercise contributes to an individual’s role-identity ( Anderson, Cychosz, & Franke, 2001 ). Exercise identity has been shown to relate to increased obligatory exercise in

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Christopher D. Lantz, Deborah J. Rhea and Karin Mesnier

This study examined the relationships among eating attitudes, exercise identity, and body alienation in ultramarathoners. Eighty-seven competitive ultramarathoners (73 males, 14 females) completed the Eating Attitudes Test–26, Exercise Identity Scale, and Body Alienation Scale as part of their pre-race registration. Correlation coefficients revealed that eating attitudes were positively related to exercise identity (R = 0.31) and injury tolerance (R = 0.43), and that exercise identity was positively related to injury tolerance (R = 0.33). MANOVA further indicated that subjects with high exercise identity reported more eating disorder behaviors [F(2, 80) = 7.73, P < 0.001 J and higher injury tolerance [F (2, 80) = 3.69, P < 0.05] than persons with low exercise identity. Female ultramarathoners scoring high on exercise identity were more likely to report aberrant eating behaviors [F (2, 80) = 3.39, P < 0.05J and higher training intensity levels [F (2, 80) = 3.91, p < 0.02J than were average males and the low- or moderate-exercise identifying females.

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Diane E. Whaley and Vicki Ebbeck

One's sense of self over time, or identity, is an important component of well-being. Schemata formed from components of identity, such as an exerciser schema, have been associated with behaviors that promote physical activity. This study explored the process of exercise-identity formation in active older adults, questioned whether or not the term exerciser was a meaningful descriptor for their behavior, and examined whether self-views were mediated by perceptions of aging. Thirteen older adults (66–90 years) were interviewed. Results supported the contention that identity formation is a purposeful activity. Participants were more likely to ascribe alternative labels to their exercise behavior, and what it meant to be “old” mediated their perceptions of exercise. Results are discussed with regard to implications for interventions.

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Parminder K. Flora, Shaelyn M. Strachan, Lawrence R. Brawley and Kevin S. Spink

Research on exercise identity (EXID) indicates that it is related to negative affect when exercisers are inconsistent or relapse. Although identity theory suggests that causal attributions about this inconsistency elicit negative self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, no EXID studies have examined this for exercise relapse. Weiner’s attribution-based theory of interpersonal motivation (2010) offers a means of testing the attribution-emotion link. Using both frameworks, we examined whether EXID and attributional properties predicted negative emotions for exercise relapse. Participants (n = 224) read an exercise relapse vignette, and then completed EXID, attributions, and emotion measures. Hierarchical multiple regression models using EXID and the attributional property of controllability significantly predicted each of shame and guilt, R 2 adjusted = .09, ps ≤ .001. Results support identity theory suggestions and Weiner’s specific attribution-emotion hypothesis. This first demonstration of an interlinking of EXID, controllability, and negative self-conscious emotions offers more predictive utility using complementary theories than either theory alone.

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Nina Verma, Robert C. Eklund, Calum A. Arthur, Timothy C. Howle and Ann-Marie Gibson

observed by Howle et al. ( 2015b ), suggesting that distinctive features of self-presentation motives are assessed by the scale dimensions. Convergent validity was also observed with acquisitive motives positively predicting PE class engagement. Physical Activity Identity The 9-item Exercise Identity Scale

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James R. Vallerand, Ryan E. Rhodes, Gordan J. Walker and Kerry S. Courneya

Anticipated regret was measured using 2 items (eg, “I would feel regret if I did not increase my weekly aerobic exercise . . .”). 29 , 30 Four items assessed exercise automaticity/habit (eg, aerobic exercise is something I do automatically). 31 Three items measured participants’ exercise identity (eg

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Sean P. Mullen

The purpose of these studies was to examine the relationship between perceptions of exercise-related changes (i.e., perceived mastery and physical change) and certainty with regard to the self-as-exerciser. It was hypothesized that seeing “change” would be associated with more favorable levels of exercise self-certainty and behavior relative to “no change.” Online surveys were repeatedly administered across 4 months (Study 1) and 4 weeks (Study 2) to 196 university students (M age = 20.17), and 250 community dwellers (M age = 38.44), respectively. Data were analyzed via latent variable modeling procedures. Consistent with hypotheses, latent classes (i.e., subgroups) reflecting interindividual differences in levels and trajectories of perceived change were associated with distinct patterns of selfcertainty and exercise behavior. The findings suggest that adults who experience mastery of skills and physiological changes also have greater self-certainty and exercise more regularly than those who do not see progress or feel as certain of their exercise identity.

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the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Sarah E. Williams * Jennifer Cumming * Nikos Ntoumanis * Sanna M. Nordin-Bates * Richard Ramsey * Craig Hall * 10 2012 34 5 621 646 10.1123/jsep.34.5.621 Exercise Identity and Attribution Properties Predict Negative Self-Conscious Emotions for Exercise

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Davidson * Oksana F. Yakushko * Niels C. Beck * 8 2004 14 14 4 4 389 389 405 405 10.1123/ijsnem.14.4.389 Eating Attitudes, Exercise Identity, and Body Alienation in Competitive Ultramarathoners Christopher D. Lantz * Deborah J. Rhea * Karin Mesnier * 8 2004 14 14 4 4 406 406 418 418 10

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Original Research Self-Schemata and Exercise Identity in Older Adults Diane E. Whaley * Vicki Ebbeck * 7 2002 10 3 245 259 10.1123/japa.10.3.245 Research Effects of Long-Term Resistance Training and Detraining on Strength and Physical Activity in Older Women Michelle M. Porter * Miriam E