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Gethin H. Evans, Phillip Watson, Susan M. Shirreffs and Ronald J. Maughan

Previous investigations have suggested that exercise at intensities greater than 70% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) reduces gastric emptying rate during exercise, but little is known about the effect of exercise intensity on gastric emptying in the postexercise period. To examine this, 8 healthy participants completed 3 experimental trials that included 30 min of rest (R), low-intensity (L; 33% of peak power output) exercise, or high-intensity (H; 10 × 1 min at peak power output followed by 2 min rest) exercise. Thirty minutes after completion of exercise, participants ingested 595 ml of a 5% glucose solution, and gastric emptying rate was assessed via the double-sampling gastric aspiration method for 60 min. No differences (p > .05) were observed in emptying characteristics for total stomach volume or test meal volume between the trials, and the quantity of glucose delivered to the intestine did not differ between trials (p > .05). Half-emptying times did not differ (p = .902) between trials and amounted to 22 ± 9, 22 ± 9, and 22 ± 7 min (M ± SD) during the R, L, and H trials, respectively. These results suggest that exercise has little effect on postexercise gastric emptying rate of a glucose solution.

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Darren C. Treasure and David M. Newbery

This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy, exercise intensity, and feeling states in a sedentary population during and following an acute bout of exercise. Sixty sedentary participants were randomly assigned to either a moderate-intensity (45-50% age predicted Heart Rate Reserve; HRR), high-intensity exercise (70-75% HRR) group, or a no-exercise attention control group. Participants in both exercise groups experienced changes in feeling states across the course of the exercise bout. The moderate-intensity group reported more positive and fewer negative feeling states both during and after exercise than the high-intensity group. Participants in both exercise conditions were significantly more positively engaged than the attention-control group postexercise. Consistent with social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997), the reciprocal determined relationship between self-efficacy and feeling states was found to be strongest in the high intensity exercise condition.

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Ilkka Heinonen, Jukka Kemppainen, Toshihiko Fujimoto, Juhani Knuuti and Kari K. Kalliokoski

the total dose of this glucose analog ( Zoch et al., 2016 ). However, it is currently unknown whether bone marrow GU increases further with increased exercise intensities. In the present study, we therefore analyzed previously collected data ( Heinonen et al., 2012 ) for changes in bone marrow GU with

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Ali M. McManus, Nathan R. Sletten and Daniel J. Green

procedures to be used in the study. The sample size was based on related research on the effects of exercise intensity on FMD ( 9 ). We estimated that a 2% change in FMD would be detected with 10 participants (assuming a SD of 2%) with statistical power of 80%. Ethical Approval This study was approved by the

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Teun van Erp, Marco Hoozemans, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

. By using IF rather than absolute power, TSS becomes a metric normalized to the level of each athlete. As shown in Equation  4 , TSS has a quadratic relationship with exercise intensity. Internal TL can also be quantified by relative VO 2 consumption, which is linearly related to relative HR and RPE

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Sanaz Nosrat, James W. Whitworth, Nicholas J. SantaBarbara, Shira I. Dunsiger and Joseph T. Ciccolo

and decreases in anxiety and tension with only a single bout of exercise ( Ekkekakis, Parfitt, & Petruzzello, 2011 ). In addition, research has consistently shown that the direction and magnitude of the affective response to an acute bout of exercise are moderated by the exercise intensity. More

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Stuart R. Graham, Stuart Cormack, Gaynor Parfitt and Roger Eston

Australian Football League (AFL) premiership season. Studies in professional soccer 11 – 13 and more recently in professional AF, 14 have demonstrated association between aerobic capacity, assessed via a Yo-Yo IR2 and match-play exercise intensity (MEI sim/min). 14 Specifically, in professional AF, a high

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Chun-Chih Wang, Chien-Heng Chu, I-Hua Chu, Kuei-Hui Chan and Yu-Kai Chang

This study was designed to examine the modulation of executive functions during acute exercise and to determine whether exercise intensity moderates this relationship. Eighty college-aged adults were recruited and randomly assigned into one of the four following groups: control, 30%, 50%, and 80% heart rate reserve. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was administered during each intervention. The results indicated that the majority of the WCST performances were impaired in the high exercise intensity group relative to those of the other three groups, whereas similar performance rates were maintained in the low- and moderate-intensity groups. These findings suggest that transient hypofrontality occurs during high-intensity exercise, but not during low- and moderate-intensity exercises. Future research aimed at employing the dual-mode theory, and applying the reticular-activating hypofrontality model is recommended to further the current knowledge.

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Kent W. Goben, Gary A. Sforzo and Patricia A. Frye

This study investigated the effect of varying exercise intensity on the thermic effect of food (TEF). Sixteen lean male subjects were matched for VO2max and randomly assigned to either a high or low intensity group for 30 min of treadmill exercise. Caloric expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry at rest and at 30-min intervals OYer 3 hrs following each of three conditions: a 750-kcal liquid meal, high or low intensity exercise, and a 750-kcal liquid meal followed by high or low intensity exercise. Low intensity exercise enhanced the TEF during recovery at 60 and 90 min while high intensity enhanced it only at 180 min but depressed it at 30 min. Total metabolic expense for a 3-hr postmeal period was not differently affected by the two exercise intensities. Exercise following a meal had a synergistic effect on metabolism; however, this effect was delayed until 180 min postmeal when exercise intensity was high. The circulatory demands of high intensity exercise may have initially blunted the TEF, but ultimately the TEF measured over the 3-hr period was at least equal to that experienced following low intensity exercise.

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Margaret Schneider and Priel Schmalbach

Background:

Little information exists as to the exercise intensity that adolescents enjoy and whether identifiable subgroups of adolescents will choose higher-intensity exercise.

Methods:

Healthy adolescents (N = 74; mean age = 11.09 years) completed a cardiorespiratory fitness test, a moderate-intensity exercise task, and an exercise task at an intensity that felt “good.” Heart rate (HR), work rate (WR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed every 3 minutes.

Results:

During the “feels good” task, adolescents exercised at a HR recognized as beneficial for cardiovascular health (mean HR = 66% to 72% of HR at VO2peak). Adolescents who experienced a positive affective shift during the moderate-intensity task engaged in higher-intensity exercise during the feels-good task as compared with those whose affective response to moderate-intensity exercise was neutral or negative (76% of peak HR vs. 70% of peak HR, P < .01).There was no difference between groups in RPE.

Conclusions:

Adolescents tend to select an exercise intensity associated with fitness benefits when afforded the opportunity to choose an intensity that feels good. An identified subgroup engaged in higher-intensity exercise without a commensurate perception of working harder. Encouraging adolescents to exercise at an intensity that feels good may increase future exercise without sacrificing fitness.