Research examining the determinants of exercise motivation among ethnically diverse women is scant. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/TPB) for explaining exercise intention among postpartum women and to examine the moderating influence of ethnicity. Participants were 63 low-income postpartum women (n = 16 white, 47 non-white) who completed self-reported measures of their exercise attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that (a) attitude (β = .59, p < .05) and subjective norm (β = .29, p < .001) explained 66% of the variance in intention, (b) PBC (β = .03, p > .05) was not a significant predictor, and (c) the contributions of the theory constructs predicting intention were not moderated by ethnicity. The study findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the TRA as a framework for understanding exercise intention among ethnically diverse postpartum women. The lack of predictive support for TPB may be due to ethnic/cultural differences or methodological limitations with PBC; however, future research is needed to test this assumption.
Danielle Symons Downs
Jill R. Reed, Paul Estabrooks, Bunny Pozehl, Kate Heelan and Christopher Wichman
-Regulatory Variables Variable name Intervention Control P value a Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Attitude Baseline 4 (1) 4 (2) .91 Post 5 (1) 4 (1) Subjective norm Baseline 3 (2.5) 3 (3) .91 Post 4 (2) 3 (2) Perceived behavior control Baseline 4 (1) 5 (2) .32 Post 5 (2) 5 (1.5) Exercise intention Baseline 4 (2) 3
Kathleen Benjamin, Nancy C. Edwards and Virendra K. Bharti
For seniors, an inactive lifestyle can result in declines in mental and physical functioning, loss of independence, and poorer quality of life. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined theory-of-planned-behavior, health-status, and sociodemographic predictors on exercise intention and behavior among 109 older and physically frail adults. Significant predictors of being a high versus a low active were a strong intention to continue exercising, positive indirect attitudes about exercise, and having been advised by a doctor to exercise. Findings indicate that a strong intention to continue exercising differentiates between those who report low levels and those who report high levels of physical activity. The results also highlight the salience of physician’s advice for seniors to exercise.
Paul Estabrooks and Kerry S. Courneya
The purpose of the study was to determine if exercise self-schema predicts exercise participation and moderates the exercise intention-behavior relationship. Participants were undergraduate students categorized into exerciser schematics (n = 527), nonexerciser schematics (n = 52), and aschematics (n = 106). The first of two questionnaires, given 4 weeks apart, included intention items for moderate and strenuous exercise, and exercise at university facilities. The second questionnaire included self-reported exercise items. Attendance at the university fitness facilities was monitored during the 4-week period between questionnaires. Kruskal-Wallis tests determined exerciser schematics reported intending to and exercising more often than aschematics and nonexerciser schematics for all measures (p < .01). Fischer z transformations revealed partial support for the hypothesis that exerciser schematics would have a higher correlation between intention and exercise than aschematics or nonexerciser schematics. Discussion focused on overcoming schematic assessment problems, offered explanation of results, and proposed future exercise self-schema research.
Galen A. Yordy and Robert W. Lent
This study explored the utility of reasoned action, planned behavior, and social cognitive models in explaining aerobic exercise intentions and behavior. Two hundred eighty-four college students completed measures of each model's central predictor variables, as well as indices of prior exercise frequency and future exercise intentions and behavior. Findings indicate that the reasoned action and social cognitive models are each significantly predictive of future exercise intention and behavior. The planned behavior model did not improve over the theory of reasoned action in predictive analyses. The effects of prior exercise activity on future exercise behavior are also partially mediated by variables from the reasoned action and social cognitive models. Implications for further research on theories of exercise behavior are discussed.
Danielle Symons Downs and Heather A. Hausenblas
Statistical reviews of the theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behavior (TPB) applied to exercise are limited by methodological issues including insufficient sample size and data to examine some moderator associations.
We conducted a meta-analytic review of 111 TRA/TPB and exercise studies and examined the influences of five moderator variables.
We found that: a) exercise was most strongly associated with intention and perceived behavioral control; b) intention was most strongly associated with attitude; and c) intention predicted exercise behavior, and attitude and perceived behavioral control predicted intention. Also, the time interval between intention to behavior; scale correspondence; subject age; operationalization of subjective norm, intention, and perceived behavioral control; and publication status moderated the size of the effect.
The TRA/TPB effectively explained exercise intention and behavior and moderators of this relationship. Researchers and practitioners are more equipped to design effective interventions by understanding the TRA/TPB constructs.
direct behavior is utilized. SE, the belief individuals hold about their capabilities to execute behaviors in accordance with situational demands, has been shown to be another significant predictor of exercise intention, adherence, and compliance 9 – 14 and intentions to be physically active. 15 Self
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
against viewing idealized images of women after watching the campaign. In addition, while exercise intention increased, exercise behavior 1 week later was not different as a result of the media campaign. Thus, although these campaigns focusing on functionality and diverse body types can lead to immediate
-6494.2006.00420.x Stanley , D. , Cumming , J. , Standage , M. , & Duda , J. ( 2012 ). Images of exercising: Exploring the links between exercise imagery use, autonomous and controlled motivation to exercise, and exercise intention and behavior . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13 , 133 – 141 . doi:10
James Du, Heather Kennedy, Jeffrey D. James and Daniel C. Funk
, consumer satisfaction offers unique rewards in the sports industry, as it is positively related to behavioral intentions ( Yoshida & James, 2010 ) such as future game attendance in spectator sports ( Hill & Green, 2000 ) and future exercise intention in participatory sports ( Funk et al., 2011 ). In the