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Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu and Yu-Kai Chang

, Scherder, & Oosterlaan, 2013 ). Moreover, various studies employing longitudinal designs have observed that following exercise interventions, children with normal weight exhibited improved working memory ( Kamijo et al., 2011 ), inhibition ( Chaddock-Heyman et al., 2013 ; Hillman et al., 2014 ), and

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Simona Bar-Haim, Ronit Aviram, Anat Shkedy Rabani, Akram Amro, Ibtisam Nammourah, Muhammed Al-Jarrah, Yoav Raanan, Jack A. Loeppky and Netta Harries

and motor function in adolescents and young adults with CP, and then measure and correlate the changes in HPA and motor function induced by exercise interventions in the same population. Mobility measures and 4-day averages of HPA by accelerometer were obtained before (T1) and after (T2) 4-month

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Mary O. Whipple, Erica N. Schorr, Kristine M.C. Talley, Ruth Lindquist, Ulf G. Bronas and Diane Treat-Jacobson

any attention, to individual differences. Thus, most conclusions related to the magnitude of the effects of exercise interventions on study outcomes are based on mean changes observed across groups and may not be representative of the potential benefit, harm, or neutral effect for an individual. Many

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Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter and Mary C. Hidde

studies have found that supervised exercise interventions are effective for improving quality of life and physical function, 13 and increasing PA for the duration of the intervention. 14 However, many of these interventions do not have lasting effects on PA after the intervention is complete. 15

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Sascha Ketelhut, Sebastian R. Ketelhut and Kerstin Ketelhut

marker of cardiovascular outcome ( 26 , 41 ). Numerous studies have assessed the effects of different exercise interventions on markers of arterial stiffness in adults ( 18 ). In children, studies assessing the effects of exercise on arterial stiffness are sparse. However, Chuensiri et al ( 7 ) showed

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Heather L. Colleran, Andrea Hiatt, Laurie Wideman and Cheryl A. Lovelady

least 3 months, and had a self-reported body mass index (BMI) between 20 and 35 kg/m 2 . Women were not eligible if they delivered by cesarean section or had a preexisting condition that disrupted hormonal levels or made them unable to participate in an exercise intervention. The University of North

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Annemarthe L. Herrema, Marjan J. Westerman, Ellen J.I. van Dongen, Urszula Kudla and Martijn Veltkamp

presence of a role model ( Allender et al., 2006 ). However, again much of the earlier work focused on adults generally, rendering it an open question to what extent results apply to older adults specifically. In addition, the main drivers and barriers related to a joint dietary and exercise intervention

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Rachel Massie, James Smallcombe and Keith Tolfrey

delayed for 2 hours in 15- to 20-year-old males ( 3 ). Chronic exercise intervention studies (≥3 wk duration) examining exercise-induced energy compensation with adolescents are limited and have examined EI and EE independently. A study in which participants were prescribed a 6-week activity and diet

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Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Melinda Irwin, Catherine Alfano, Kristin Campbell, Catherine Duggan, Karen Foster-Schubert, Ching-Yun Wang and Anne McTiernan


The purpose of this study was to (a) examine demographic, psychosocial, and physiological predictors of exercise adherence in a yearlong exercise intervention and (b) describe the trajectory of adherence over time.


Participants were 51 men and 49 women aged 40 to 75 years. The supervised and home-based intervention consisted of 60 minutes/day, 6 days/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise. Three adherence measures were used: (1) minutes/week, (2) MET-hours/week, and (3) change in cardiopulmonary fitness (VO2max). Predictors of adherence were determined separately by sex using mixed models and multivariable regression.


Participants performed 287 ± 98 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity with 71% adhering to at least 80% (288 minutes/week) of the prescription. Men adhered better than women (P < .001). Among women, adiposity-related variables were significantly related to poorer adherence on all 3 measures (P < .05). A less consistent pattern was observed among men but in follow-up analyses, adiposity was associated with fewer MET-hours/week of exercise. Social support, pain, and perceived benefits were predictive in some models. Men and nonobese women experienced peak adherence at 4 to 6 months, while obese women peaked during months 0 to 3.


When provided with supervision and support, previously sedentary men and women can achieve and maintain high levels of aerobic activity.

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Chung-Chao Liang, Qi-Xing Change, Yu-Chou Hung, Chizan-Chung Chen, Chun-Hsiang Lin, Yu-Chun Wei and Jia-Ching Chen

declination in functional health after a 2-year follow-up, even with self-initiated regular exercise ( Wang, Yeh, Wang, et al., 2011 ). Numerous studies have indicated that a structured exercise intervention or multicomponent training conducted by health professionals can benefit physical performance and