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Jinhui Li, Chen Li, Bing Xun Chia, Xinran Chen, Tan Phat Pham and Yin-Leng Theng

, 2019 ) has shown that people in group play have superior adherence to people who primarily play alone. Nevertheless, to date, little is known about how different types of social interaction in exergames could promote exercise motivation among older adults. Further, exergames involving competitive

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Danielle Symons Downs, Jennifer S. Savage and Jennifer M. DiNallo

Background:

Scant research has examined the determinants of primary exercise dependence symptoms in youth. Study purposes were to examine sex differences across leisure-time exercise behavior, motivation, and primary exercise dependence symptoms in youth and the extent to which exercise behavior and motivation predicted exercise dependence within the Self-Determination Theory framework.

Methods:

Adolescents (N = 805; mean age = 15 years; 46% girls) completed measures of exercise behavior, motivation, and exercise dependence in health/PE classes.

Results:

One-way ANOVA revealed boys scored higher than girls on leisure-time exercise behavior, exercise dependence symptoms, and most of the exercise motivation subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a) sex, exercise behavior, motivation, and their interaction terms explained 39% of the variance in primary exercise dependence; b) Integrated Regulation and Introjected Regulation were important determinants of exercise dependence; and c) sex moderated the contributions of External Regulation for predicting exercise dependence such that boys in the high and low external regulation groups had higher symptoms than girls in the high and low external regulation groups.

Conclusions:

These preliminary findings support the controlled dimensions of Integrated Regulation (boys, girls), Introjected Regulation (boys, girls), and External Regulation (boys only) are important determinants of primary exercise dependence symptoms.

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Patricia Marten DiBartolo, Linda Lin, Simone Montoya, Heather Neal and Carey Shaffer

This study reports the psychometric development of a measure to assess individual differences in exercise motivations using a functionalist strategy (Snyder & Cantor, 1997). Factor analyses revealed two subscales for the newly developed Function of Exercise Scale (FES): Weight and Appearance (WA), and Health and Enjoyment (HE). FES-HE scores correlated with better psychological well-being and predicted prospectively monitored as well as concurrently and longitudinally assessed exercise behavior. FES-HE scores also correlated with lower pulse, systolic blood pressure, and salivary cortisol readings, indicating its association with better physical health. In contrast, FES-WA scores correlated with greater depressive and eating disorder symptoms, as well as lower self-esteem, and predicted the later emergence of eating disorder, but not depressive, symptoms. FES-WA scores failed to show a relationship with measures of physical well-being, including exercise engagement and vital sign data. Overall, the FES appears to hold promise as a succinct and psychometrically sound heuristic for meaningfully relating exercise motivations to important indices of both physical and psychological well-being.

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Martyn Standage, Simon J. Sebire and Tom Loney

This study examined the utility of motivation as advanced by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) in predicting objectively assessed bouts of moderate-intensity exercise behavior. Participants provided data pertaining to their exercise motivation. One week later, participants wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart; Cambridge Neurotechnology Ltd) and 24-hr energy expenditure was estimated for 7 days. After controlling for gender and a combined marker of BMI and waist circumference, results showed autonomous motivation to positively predict moderate-intensity exercise bouts of ≥10 min, ≥20 min, and an accumulation needed to meet public health recommendations for moderate-intensity activity (i.e., ACSM/AHA guidelines). The present findings add bouts of objectively assessed exercise behavior to the growing body of literature that documents the adaptive consequences of engaging in exercise for autonomous reasons. Implications for practice and future work are discussed.

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David A. Dzewaltowski

This study compared the ability of Bandura's social cognitive theory and Fish-bein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to predict exercise behavior. The theories' constructs were assessed and then the exercise behaviors of 328 individuals were recorded for the following 7 weeks. A path analysis indicated that the theory of reasoned action model fit the data, but explained only 5 % of the exercise behavior variance. Two social cognitive theory variables, self-efficacy and self-evaluated dissatisfaction, significantly predicted exercise behavior. Also, a multiplicative function of self-evaluated dissatisfaction and outcome expectations increased the amount of predicted exercise behavior variance to 16%. Thus, individuals who were confident they could adhere to an exercise program and were satisfied with their standing on probable outcomes from participation (e.g., present body weight) exercised more days per week. A commonality analysis indicated that the theory of reasoned action did not account for any unique variance in exercise behavior over the social cognitive theory constructs. In sum, social cognitive theory was more effective than the theory of reasoned action in predicting exercise behavior.

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Yubing Wang and Ang Chen

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the extent to which a concept-based physical education curriculum, specifically the Science of Healthful Living (SHL) curriculum, influenced middle school students’ knowledge, motivation for physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA), and out-of-school PA. Methods: A static group comparison design was adopted to analyze the differences on fitness knowledge, autonomous motivation for PE and PA, and out-of-school PA between eighth-grade students who studied the SHL curriculum (the experimental condition, n = 168) and their peers who studied a multiactivity PE (the control condition, n = 226) 1 year earlier. Results: The students who studied the SHL curriculum demonstrated significantly higher levels of knowledge (p < .05, Cohen d = 0.81), autonomous motivation toward PA (p < .05, Cohen d = 0.20), and out-of-school PA (p < .05, Mann–Whitney U effect size = 0.01) than students who had experienced the multiactivity PE. The students in both conditions were equally motivated in their respective PE courses. Conclusion: The SHL curriculum is effective in promoting students’ PA behavior outside of the school.

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David Markland and Vannessa Tobin

Drawing on self-determination theory, Mullan, Markland, and Ingledew (1997) developed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ) to measure the continuum of behavioral regulation in exercise contexts. The BREQ assesses external, identified, introjected, and intrinsic regulations. Mullan et al. initially included a set of amotivation items but dropped these due to high levels of skewness and a restricted response range in their development sample. It would clearly be useful to assess amotivation for exercise. This study aimed to test the factorial validity of a modified BREQ with amotivation items reinstated in a sample likely to exhibit a wider range of amotivation responses. A total of 194 former exercise referral scheme participants completed the revised instrument (BREQ-2). Although the amotivation items were still skewed, confirmatory factor analysis using the Satorra-Bentler (1994) scaling correction to χ2 indicated an excellent model ft. The BREQ-2 could prove useful to researchers wishing to assess amotivation in order to develop a more complete understanding of motivation for exercise.

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Frederiki C. Moustaka, Symeon P. Vlachopoulos, Chris Kabitsis and Yannis Theodorakis

Background:

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an autonomy-supportive intervention based on self-determination theory in influencing perceptions of autonomy support, basic psychological needs, behavioral regulations, subjective vitality, and exercise behavior.

Methods:

35 female exercise participants age 30 to 58 years who enrolled to an 8-week exercise program attended 24 exercise classes that were taught using either an autonomy-supportive (n = 19) or a lack of autonomy support (n = 16) instructing style.

Results:

The experimental group reported an increase in perceived autonomy support, the fulfillment of the needs for autonomy and competence, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, and subjective vitality. They also reported higher attendance rates during the program and greater participation to moderate and/or mild nonstructured exercise during 5 weeks after the end of the program. The control group reported a decrease in perceived autonomy support, the needs for autonomy and competence, intrinsic motivation, and subjective vitality.

Conclusion:

The results supported tenets of self-determination theory and highlighted the motivational and psychological benefits of an autonomy-supportive exercise instructing style among middle-age women.

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin

One of the key questions in human behavior is how social environment can facilitate individuals’ behavior change. Especially important questions pertain to the physical activity (PA) context, in which the most effective teaching practices to foster participant exercise motivation and long

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Johan Pelssers, Emalie Hurkmans, Jeroen Scheerder, Norbert Vanbeselaere, Steven Vos, Tim Smits and Filip Boen

motivational theory, and its major assumptions have been consistently validated (for a review, consider Teixeira, Carraca, Markland, Silva, & Ryan, 2012 ; Wilson, Mack, & Grattan, 2008 ). SDT’s core assumption is that people better maintain their exercise involvement when their exercise motivation arises