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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway ( Cimino et al., 2013 ; Yan et al., 2017 ). Nrf2 is a transcription factor regulating gene expression of antioxidant proteins. Oh et al. ( 2017 ) observed upregulation of Nrf2 in mice and increased endurance exercise performance, and similar

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Alex M. Ehlert, Hannah M. Twiddy and Patrick B. Wilson

 al., 2019 ; De Ataide e Silva et al., 2014 ). These effects of carbohydrate mouth rinsing may be mediated via sweetness properties, although changes in exercise performance and brain activation patterns have been observed even after accounting for the sweetness of carbohydrate beverages ( Chambers et

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Daniel G. Hursh, Marissa N. Baranauskas, Chad C. Wiggins, Shane Bielko, Timothy D. Mickleborough and Robert F. Chapman

Endurance exercise performance in hypoxia is impaired partly due to declines in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (S p O 2 ), 1 which may limit the delivery of oxygen to exercising muscle. A well-established mechanism of defending S p O 2 during hypoxic exercise is to increase minute ventilation

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Adrián Castillo-García and Alejandro Lucia

, higher mechanical work for a given energy cost). 7 There is therefore biological rationale for a potential ergogenic effect of ketone supplementation on endurance exercise performance, which in fact is a topic that has gained much popularity in recent years. 5 – 7 A seminal study of Cox et al 8 found that acute

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Tuyen Le, Jeffrey D. Graham, Sara King-Dowling and John Cairney

studies have looked beyond physical impairments, such as motor deficits and cardiovascular functioning, to explain lower exercise performance in these children. Other prominent underlying mechanisms known to affect exercise performance, such as various psychological variables ( Rhodes, 2017 ), remain

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Blair Crewther, Christian Cook, John Fitzgerald, Michal Starczewski, Michal Gorski and Joanna Orysiak

others suggested that a higher total concentration (up to 90 ng·mL −1 ) might be necessary for manifesting a skeletal muscle response ( 6 ). An alternative, and biologically plausible, explanation is that 25(OH)D forms part of a network of hormones that interact to regulate exercise performance. Male

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, Georgios Mavropalias and Chris R. Abbiss

performance effects associated with heat stress. 14 – 15 Heat acclimation can be achieved both through passive or active thermal exposure, though the benefits of passive acclimation on exercise performance have been less clear. 16 Interestingly, the effects of short-term heat acclimation protocols have been

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Ben M. Krings, Brandon D. Shepherd, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. McAllister and JohnEric W. Smith

Carbohydrate mouth rinsing (CMR) has been proposed to enhance exercise performance by stimulating reward centers ( Chambers et al., 2009 ) and areas of the brain involved in motor performance and sensory perception ( Turner et al., 2014 ). The technique was first utilized in an investigation by

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Caitlin Campbell, Diana Prince, Marlia Braun, Elizabeth Applegate and Gretchen A. Casazza

Numerous studies have shown that ingesting carbohydrate in the form of a drink can improve exercise performance by maintaining blood glucose levels and sparing endogenous glycogen stores. The effectiveness of carbohydrate gels or jellybeans in improving endurance performance has not been examined. On 4 separate days and 1–2 hr after a standardized meal, 16 male (8; 35.8 ± 2.5 yr) and female (8; 32.4 ± 2.4 yr) athletes cycled at 75% VO2peak for 80 min followed by a 10-km time trial. Participants consumed isocaloric (0.6 g of carbohydrate per kg per hour) amounts of randomly assigned sports beans, sports drink, gel, or water only, before, during, and after exercise. Blood glucose concentrations were similar at rest between treatments and decreased significantly during exercise with the water trial only. Blood glucose concentrations for all carbohydrate supplements were significantly, p < .05, higher than water during the 80-min exercise bout and during the time trial (5.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L for sports beans, 5.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L for sports drink, 5.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L for gel, and 4.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L for water). There were no significant differences in blood glucose between carbohydrate treatments. The 10-km time trials using all 3 carbohydrate treatments were significantly faster (17.2 ± 0.6 min for sports beans, 17.3 ± 0.6 min for sports drink, and 17.3 ± 0.6 min for gel) than water (17.8 ± 0.7 min). All carbohydrate-supplement types were equally effective in maintaining blood glucose levels during exercise and improving exercise performance compared with water only.

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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous

examination of the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance. Soccer is a popular sport around the world, in which aerobic endurance is of prime importance due to its long duration (90 min) and the need for rapid energy substrate restoration through aerobic metabolism between high