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Kym Joanne Price, Brett Ashley Gordon, Kim Gray, Kerri Gergely, Stephen Richard Bird and Amanda Clare Benson

Rehabilitation Association, 2004 ). Despite physical capacity being associated with cardiac treatment ( Ades et al., 2006 ; Sumide et al., 2009 ), current Australian guidelines ( National Heart Foundation of Australia & Australian Cardiac Rehabilitation Association, 2004 ) for exercise prescription in cardiac

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Timothy R. McConnell, Jean H. Haas and Nancy C. Conlin

Thirty-eight children (mean age 12.2 ±3.6 yrs) were tested to (a) compare the training heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) computed from commonly used exercise prescription methods to the heart rate (HRAT) and V̇O2 (ATge) at the gas exchange anaerobic threshold, (b) compute the range of relative HRs and V̇O2s (% HRmax and % V̇O2max, respectively) at which the ATge occurred, and (c) discuss the implications for prescribing exercise intensity. The ATge occurred at a V̇O2 of 20.9 ml · kg−1 · min−1 and an HR of 129 beats·min−1. The training HR and V̇O2 computed using 70 and 85% HRmax, 70% of the maximal heart rate reserve (HRR), and 57 and 78% V·O2max, were significantly different (p<.05) from their corresponding ATge values. To compute training % HRmax, % V̇O2max, and % HRR values that would not significantly differ from the ATge, then 68% HRmax, 48% V̇O2max, and 41% HRR would need to be used for the current population.

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Eric D. Vidoni, Anna Mattlage, Jonathan Mahnken, Jeffrey M. Burns, Joe McDonough and Sandra A. Billinger

The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of a submaximal exercise test, the Step Test Exercise Prescription (STEP), in a broad age range and in individuals in the earliest stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individuals (n = 102) underwent treadmill-based maximal exercise testing and a STEP. The STEP failed to predict peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), and was a biased estimate of VO2peak (p < .0001). Only 43% of subjects’ STEP results were within 3.5 ml · kg–1 · min–1 of VO2peak. When categorized into fitness levels these 2 measures demonstrated moderate agreement (kappa = .59). The validity of the STEP was not supported in our participants, including those with AD. The STEP may not be appropriate in the clinic as a basis for exercise recommendations in these groups, although it may continue to have utility in classifying fitness in research or community health screenings.

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Lori A. Bolgla, Scott W. Shaffer and Terry R. Malone

Context:

Knee extension exercise is an important part of knee rehabilitation. Clinicians prescribe non-weight bearing exercise initially and progress patients to weight bearing exercise once they can perform a straight leg raise (SLR).

Objective:

Compare VM activation during a SLR and weight bearing exercises.

Design:

One-way repeated measures design.

Setting:

University Laboratory.

Subjects:

Fifteen healthy subjects.

Intervention:

One SLR exercise and 6 weight-bearing knee extension exercises.

Main Outcome Measures:

Electromyographic amplitudes for the VM expressed as a percent maximum voluntary isometric contraction.

Results:

The SLR had greater activation than the single leg stance and bilateral squat exercises. The step-up and unilateral leg press exercises had the greatest activation.

Conclusions:

SLR performance can be an important indicator for exercise progression. These results provide foundational knowledge to assist clinicians with exercise prescription.

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Roy J. Shephard

Background:

Traditional approaches to exercise prescription have included a preliminary medical screening followed by exercise tests of varying sophistication. To maximize population involvement, qualified fitness and exercise professionals (QFEPs) have used a self-administered screening questionnaire (the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, PAR-Q) and a simple measure of aerobic performance (the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test, CAFT). However, problems have arisen in applying the original protocol to those with chronic disease. Recent developments have addressed these issues.

Methods:

Evolution of the PAR-Q and CAFT protocol is reviewed from their origins in 1974 to the current electronic decision tree model of exercise screening and prescription.

Results:

About a fifth of apparently healthy adults responded positively to the original PAR-Q instrument, thus requiring an often unwarranted referral to a physician. Minor changes of wording did not overcome this problem. However, a consensus process has now developed an electronic decision tree for stratification of exercise risk not only for healthy individuals, but also for those with various types of chronic disease.

Conclusions:

The new approach to clearance greatly reduces physician referrals and extends the role of QFEPs. The availability of effective screening and simple fitness testing should contribute to the goal of maximizing physical activity in the entire population.

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Joseph B. Lesnak, Dillon T. Anderson, Brooke E. Farmer, Dimitrios Katsavelis and Terry L. Grindstaff

Exercise prescription to induce muscle strength and hypertrophy utilizes loads greater than 60% of an individual’s 1-repetition maximum (1RM). 1 Following knee injury or surgery, quadriceps weakness is a common impairment that limits physical performance and self-reported function. 2 – 4 One of

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Jason Brumitt and R. Barry Dale

Edited by Gary B. Wilkerson

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Edited by Thomas W. Rowland

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Lori Bolgla and Terry Malone

Objective:

To provide evidence regarding the therapeutic effects of exercise on subjects with patellofemoral-pain syndrome (PFPS).

Data Sources:

Evidence was compiled with data located using the Medline, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases from 1985 to 2004 using the key words patellofemoral pain syndrome, exercise, rehabilitation, and strength.

Study Selection:

The literature review examined intervention studies evaluating the effectiveness of exercise in subjects specif-cally diagnosed with PFPS. Articles were selected based on clinical relevance to PFPS rehabilitation that required an intervention of a minimum of 4 weeks.

Data Synthesis:

The review supports using exercise as the primary treatment for PFPS.

Conclusions:

Evidence exists regarding the use of isometric, isotonic, isokinetic, and closed kinetic chain exercise. Although clinicians have advocated the use of biofeedback and patella taping, there is limited evidence regarding the efficacy of these interventions on subjects diagnosed with PFPS.

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David B. Creel, Leslie M. Schuh, Robert L. Newton Jr, Joseph J. Stote and Brenda M. Cacucci

cardiovascular activities may include activities of daily living that for normal-weight individuals would not improve fitness. When working with those with severe obesity, fitness-related professionals should be careful to individualize exercise prescriptions while promoting a gradual progression of exercise