The purpose of this article is to expand the literature on case formulation as a clinical tool for use within exercise psychology, generally and lifestyle behavior change interventions, specifically. Existing research offers limited support for the efficacy of current physical activity behavior change intervention strategies, particularly in the long-term. The present paper argues that intervention strategies need to pay greater attention to the complex and individualistic nature of exercise and health related behaviors. It has been suggested that existing intervention designs tend to conform to a medical model approach, which can at times potentially neglect the complex array of personal and situational factors that impact on human motivation and behavior. Case formulation is presented as a means of encouraging a dynamic and comprehensive approach to the development and implementation of practical interventions within the health behavior change field. The adoption of these clinical techniques may facilitate the careful consideration of variations in the development, manifestation, and maintaining mechanisms of problematic behaviors (e.g., inactivity). An overview of case formulation in its different forms is presented alongside a justification for its use within exercise psychology.
Andrew J. Hutchison and Lynne H. Johnston
Urban Johnson and Mark Andersen
Education and training are foundations of professional practice in sport and exercise psychology (SEP), and, like many other applied and academic disciplines, SEP is undergoing a gradual advancement in terms of theoretical, methodological, and practical development. In a period with new social
Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Celina Shirazipour and Krystn Orr
By Jeffrey J. Martin. Published 2018 by Oxford University Press , New York, NY. $110 , 464 pp., ISBN 978-0-1906-3805-4 Handbook of Disability Sport & Exercise Psychology provides a comprehensive commentary on the research on sport and exercise for persons with disabilities. Disability sport and
Measurement has a high profile in sport and exercise psychology research and provides the basis for examining and developing theory. The current state of sport and exercise psychology is one of complex models and theories, and sophisticated measurement methods are required to fully understand and develop these. This paper promotes a current and powerful measurement approach, item response theory, and demonstrates how it can be applied to sport and exercise psychological constructs to enhance the quality of instrument development and strengthen construct validity.
Andreas Stenling, Andreas Ivarsson, Urban Johnson and Magnus Lindwall
Bayesian statistics is on the rise in mainstream psychology, but applications in sport and exercise psychology research are scarce. In this article, the foundations of Bayesian analysis are introduced, and we will illustrate how to apply Bayesian structural equation modeling in a sport and exercise psychology setting. More specifically, we contrasted a confirmatory factor analysis on the Sport Motivation Scale II estimated with the most commonly used estimator, maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian approach with weakly informative priors for cross-loadings and correlated residuals. The results indicated that the model with Bayesian estimation and weakly informative priors provided a good fit to the data, whereas the model estimated with a maximum likelihood estimator did not produce a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation are discussed as well as potential advantages and caveats with the Bayesian approach.
Diane L. Gill
Information on submitted manuscripts and editorial decisions suggested that the journal has maintained its status as a respected sport and exercise psychology research publication from 1985 to 1990. Most submitted manuscripts described research on sport and exercise participants with research topics, samples, and methodologies that follow traditional patterns. Surveys and factorial or regression designs dominated, although some research using alternative approaches, particularly interpretive methodologies, has been submitted and published. Future research might expand to include more diverse participants, settings, and methodologies.
Vikki Krane and Diane E. Whaley
To read the written history of U.S. sport and exercise psychology, one easily could assume that women were absent from the field. Yet, indisputably women have assumed influential leadership roles through their research, leadership in professional organizations, editing major journals, and mentoring graduate students and novice professionals. Based on life history interviews, grounded in standpoint and feminist cultural studies perspectives, we present the collective contributions of 8 women who greatly affected the development of the field of sport and exercise psychology in the U.S. Although traveling different paths and having varied strengths and weaknesses, certain attributes distinguished their journeys; most notably, they were driven, selfless, dignified, humble, competent, and passionate about developing the field. Their legacy includes generations of students who have carved their own careers in sport and exercise psychology; lines of research that have established the field as rigorous, theory-based, practical, and relevant; and caring and competent leadership in our professional organizations.
Diane E. Whaley
Peter R.E. Crocker
This paper discusses the benefits of using theory-driven research in sport and exercise psychology using individuals with physical disabilities. The cognitively oriented theories of transactional stress and emotion (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), attributional theory (Weiner, 1985), and theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985) are outlined. Relevant research with individuals with physical disabilities is examined. The paper addresses how integrating these three theories with research with this population can stimulate research ideas, improve the generality of theories used in sport and exercise psychology, and provide meaningful knowledge about their experiences.
Jay C. Kimiecik and Amy T. Harris
It has been suggested that enjoyment is a key construct for understanding and explaining the motivation and experiences of sport and exercise participants (Scanlan & Simons, 1992; Wankel, 1993). In this paper, definitions of enjoyment used by sport and exercise psychology researchers are reviewed, and the conceptual and measurement implications for the study of sport and exercise experiences are discussed. In many studies investigating enjoyment, researchers have not adequately defined the construct. Also, there are possible limitations with proposed definitions of enjoyment (e.g., Scanlan & Simons, 1992; Wankel, 1993). One possible way of addressing these limitations is to conceptualize and define enjoyment as flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1993). To support this enjoyment-equals-flow contention, enjoyment/flow is compared with other related constructs: affect, attitude, pleasure, and intrinsic motivation. Implications of the suggested definition of enjoyment as flow for past and present enjoyment research in sport and exercise psychology are discussed.