exercise. c Significantly different from VIG. There was also a significant main effect between groups for RRTri during exercise recovery, with MOD achieving higher levels ( p < .04; Table 2 ). Figure 1 shows the Poincaré plots during (a) rest, (b) VO 2 max, and (c) 2-min active recovery for a sample
Julia C. Orri, Elizabeth M. Hughes, Deepa G. Mistry, and Antone Scala
Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer, and Kelly Pritchett
Commercial “carbohydrate-replacement” beverages (sports drinks), which contain added carbohydrate to aid in muscle glycogen resynthesis, are commonly used as part of post-exercise recovery routines. Recently, studies have suggested that low-fat chocolate milk is an effective post-exercise recovery
Justin H. Rigby and Austin M. Hagan
Carvalho Pde T , Dal Corso S , Bjordal JM . Effect of phototherapy (low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) on exercise performance and markers of exercise recovery: a systematic review with meta-analysis . Lasers Med Sci . 2015 ; 30 ( 2 ): 925 – 939 . PubMed ID: 24249354 doi
.g., enhanced MPS and reduced MPB), indicate that interventions supporting post-exercise protein intakes are likely to have favorable effects on EIMD in older adults. Only one recent study has examined the effects of high protein feeding on acute exercise recovery in older adults ( Doering et al., 2017 ). Using
Jason R. Karp, Jeanne D. Johnston, Sandra Tecklenburg, Timothy D. Mickleborough, Alyce D. Fly, and Joel M. Stager
Nine male, endurance-trained cyclists performed an interval workout followed by 4 h of recovery, and a subsequent endurance trial to exhaustion at 70% VO2max, on three separate days. Immediately following the first exercise bout and 2 h of recovery, subjects drank isovolumic amounts of chocolate milk, fluid replacement drink (FR), or carbohydrate replacement drink (CR), in a single-blind, randomized design. Carbohydrate content was equivalent for chocolate milk and CR. Time to exhaustion (TTE), average heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and total work (WT) for the endurance exercise were compared between trials. TTE and WT were significantly greater for chocolate milk and FR trials compared to CR trial. The results of this study suggest that chocolate milk is an effective recovery aid between two exhausting exercise bouts.
Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts, and Tim Meyer
Physiological and psychological demands during training and competition generate fatigue and reduce an athlete’s sport-specific performance capacity. The magnitude of this decrement depends on several characteristics of the exercise stimulus (eg, type, duration, and intensity), as well as on individual characteristics (eg, fitness, profile, and fatigue resistance). As such, the time required to fully recover is proportional to the level of fatigue, and the consequences of exercise-induced fatigue are manifold. Whatever the purpose of the ensuing exercise session (ie, training or competition), it is crucial to understand the importance of optimizing the period between exercise bouts in order to speed up the regenerative processes and facilitate recovery or set the next stimulus at the optimal time point. This implies having a fairly precise understanding of the fatigue mechanisms that contribute to the performance decrement. Failing to respect an athlete’s recovery needs may lead to an excessive accumulation of fatigue and potentially “nonfunctional overreaching” or to maladaptive training. Although research in this area recently increased, considerations regarding the specific time frames for different physiological mechanisms in relation to exercise-induced fatigue are still missing. Furthermore, recommendations on the timing and dosing of recovery based on these time frames are limited. Therefore, the aim of this article is to describe time courses of recovery in relation to the exercise type and on different physiological levels. This summary supports coaches, athletes, and scientists in their decision-making process by considering the relationship of exercise type, physiology, and recovery.
Shona L. Halson
An increase in research investigating recovery strategies has occurred alongside the increase in usage of recovery by elite athletes. Because there is inconsistent evidence regarding the benefits of recovery on performance, it is necessary to examine research design to identify possible strategies that enhance performance in different athlete settings. The purpose of this review is to examine available recovery literature specifically related to the time frame between performance assessments to identify considerations for both research design and practical use of recovery techniques.
Thomas M. Doering, Peter R. Reaburn, Stuart M. Phillips, and David G. Jenkins
Participation rates of masters athletes in endurance events such as long-distance triathlon and running continue to increase. Given the physical and metabolic demands of endurance training, recovery practices influence the quality of successive training sessions and, consequently, adaptations to training. Research has suggested that, after muscle-damaging endurance exercise, masters athletes experience slower recovery rates in comparison with younger, similarly trained athletes. Given that these discrepancies in recovery rates are not observed after non–muscle-damaging exercise, it is suggested that masters athletes have impairments of the protein remodeling mechanisms within skeletal muscle. The importance of postexercise protein feeding for endurance athletes is increasingly being acknowledged, and its role in creating a positive net muscle protein balance postexercise is well known. The potential benefits of postexercise protein feeding include elevating muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell activity for muscle repair and remodeling, as well as facilitating muscle glycogen resynthesis. Despite extensive investigation into age-related anabolic resistance in sedentary aging populations, little is known about how anabolic resistance affects postexercise muscle protein synthesis and thus muscle remodeling in aging athletes. Despite evidence suggesting that physical training can attenuate but not eliminate age-related anabolic resistance, masters athletes are currently recommended to consume the same postexercise dietary protein dose (approximately 20 g or 0.25 g/kg/meal) as younger athletes. Given the slower recovery rates of masters athletes after muscle-damaging exercise, which may be due to impaired muscle remodeling mechanisms, masters athletes may benefit from higher doses of postexercise dietary protein, with particular attention directed to the leucine content of the postexercise bolus.
Gethin H. Evans, Jennifer Miller, Sophie Whiteley, and Lewis J. James
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of water and a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution on postexercise rehydration when a standard meal was consumed during rehydration. Eight healthy participants took part in two experimental trials during which they lost 1.5 ± 0.4% of initial body mass via intermittent exercise in the heat. Participants then rehydrated over a 60-min period with water or a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution in a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss during exercise. In addition, a standard meal was ingested during this time which was equivalent to 30% of participants predicted daily energy expenditure. Urine samples were collected before and after exercise and for 3 hr after rehydration. Cumulative urine volume (981 ± 458 ml and 577 ± 345 mL; p = .035) was greater, while percentage fluid retained (50 ± 20% and 70 ± 21%; p = .017) was lower during the water compared with the NaCl trial respectively. A high degree of variability in results was observed with one participant producing 28% more urine and others ranging from 18–83% reduction in urine output during the NaCl trial. The results of this study suggest that after exercise induced dehydration, the ingestion of a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution leads to greater fluid retention compared with water, even when a meal is consumed postexercise. Furthermore, ingestion of plain water may be effective for maintenance of fluid balance when food is consumed in the rehydration period.
Bethany Northeast and Tom Clifford
This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of creatine supplementation on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage, and is reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus were searched for articles from inception until April 2020. Inclusion criteria were adult participants (≥18 years); creatine provided before and/or after exercise versus a noncreatine comparator; measurement of muscle function recovery, muscle soreness, inflammation, myocellular protein efflux, oxidative stress; range of motion; randomized controlled trials in humans. Thirteen studies (totaling 278 participants; 235 males and 43 females; age range 20–60 years) were deemed eligible for analysis. Data extraction was performed independently by both authors. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to critically appraise the studies; forest plots were generated with random-effects model and standardized mean differences. Creatine supplementation did not alter muscle strength, muscle soreness, range of motion, or inflammation at each of the five follow-up times after exercise (<30 min, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr; p > .05). Creatine attenuated creatine kinase activity at 48-hr postexercise (standardized mean difference: −1.06; 95% confidence interval [−1.97, −0.14]; p = .02) but at no other time points. High (I2; >75%) and significant (Chi2; p < .01) heterogeneity was identified for all outcome measures at various follow-up times. In conclusion, creatine supplementation does not accelerate recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage; however, well-controlled studies with higher sample sizes are warranted to verify these conclusions. Systematic review registration (PROSPERO CRD42020178735).