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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

sensitivity, arterial blood pressure, and weight status ( Russo et al., 2016 ), all areas that if left untreated can predispose overweight/obese individuals to future health issues. When exercise is prescribed in order to combat obesity, exercise testing is often used in order to measure the impact of a

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Marco Van Brussel, Bart C. Bongers, Erik H.J. Hulzebos, Marcella Burghard and Tim Takken

recuperation, often using cardiopulmonary exercise testing ( 39 ). Using this noninvasive and dynamic integrative approach, it is possible to uncover potential physiological causes of unexplained exercise-related complaints and symptoms and to observe specific pathophysiological patterns based on physiological

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Volker Scheer, Tanja I. Janssen, Solveig Vieluf and Hans-Christian Heitkamp

and exercise testing strategies to predict performance and improve training concepts and competition results. Values that are classically used to predict running performance include maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), percentage of VO 2 max, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and running economy. 1

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Steven R. Neish, Richard A. Friedman and J. Timothy Bricker

Exercise testing has become an important method for evaluation of pediatric patients with known or suspected arrhythmias. It has proven useful in patients with exercise-induced symptoms, patients with congenital heart disease, and patients with pacemakers. Exercise has predictable effects on the normal electrocardiogram. Exercise can also bring out abnormalities in cardiac rhythm that may not be present at rest. The results of exercise testing can provide information that directs further therapy or evaluation. Exercise testing also helps to evaluate the efficacy of antiarrhythmic therapy in some patients.

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Nathan D. Dicks, Nicholas A. Jamnick, Steven R. Murray and Robert W. Pettitt

Purpose:

To investigate a new power-to-body-mass (BM) ratio 3-min all-out cycling test (3MT%BM) for determining critical power (CP) and finite work capacity above CP (W ′).

Methods:

The gas-exchange threshold (GET), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and power output evoking VO2max (W peak) and GET (W GET) for cycle ergometry were determined in 12 participants. CP and W′ were determined using the original “linear factor” 3MT (3MTrpm^2) and compared with CP and W′ derived from a procedure, the 3MT%BM, using the subject’s body mass and self-reported physical activity rating (PA-R), with values derived from linear regression of the work–time model and power–inverse-time model (1/time) data from 3 separate exhaustive squarewave bouts.

Results:

The VO2max, VO2GET, W peak, and W GET values estimated from PA-R and a non-exercise-regression equation did not differ (P > .05) from actual measurements. Estimates of CP derived from the 3MT%BM (235 ± 56 W), 3MTrpm^2 (234 ± 62 W), work–time (231 ± 57 W), and 1/time models (230 ± 57 W) did not differ (F = 0.46, P = .72). Similarly, estimates of W′ between all methods did not differ (F = 3.58, P = .07). There were strong comparisons of the 3MT%BM to 1/time and work–time models with the average correlation, standard error of the measurement, and CV% for critical power being .96, 8.74 W, and 4.64%, respectively.

Conclusion:

The 3MT%BM is a valid, single-visit protocol for determining CP and W′.

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Chelsie E. Winchcombe, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew M. Doyle, Cruz Hogan and Peter Peeling

monitoring of the training program. 4 Current best practice physiological testing of flat-water sprint kayak athletes in Australia involves the completion of a laboratory-based graded exercise test (GXT) conducted on a stationary kayak ergometer. 4 This test involves 5 to 6 submaximal efforts, each of 4

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Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Cloe Vandervaeren, Luk Buyse, Jeroen van Cutsem, Nathalie Pattyn and Bart Roelands

exercise test increased mental fatigue while no mentally fatiguing task was being conducted. This means that participants were unable to differentiate between physical fatigue and mental fatigue. Participants in the mental fatigue condition felt significantly more fatigued compared with the controls after

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Thomas M. Zellers and David J. Driscoll

Because it is not known how often and how uniformly exercise testing is used to “unmask” recurrent or persistent coarctation of the aorta, this study was designed to determine (a) the frequency with which exercise testing is used by the clinician to evaluate patients after coarctation repair, and (b) the hemodynamic measures obtained with exercise that are considered to be indicative of significant persistent or recurrent coarctation. Questionnaires were sent to 80 randomly selected pediatric cardiologists; 49 were returned completed. About half of the respondents performed exercise testing (ET) on all of their patients after coarctation repair and 75 % tested at least half. Those who supervised an exercise laboratory used ET for a significantly greater number of their patients. In descending order, rest arm-leg gradient (ALG), maximal exercise systolic blood pressure (MXBP), and postexercise ALG were considered the most important indicators of significant recoarctation. The majority of respondents made decisions based on data from the ET that were consistent with published guidelines.

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Mike Doherty and Paul M. Smith

This study used the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise testing. Forty double-blind studies with 76 effect sizes (ES) met the inclusion criteria. The type of exercise test was classified as endurance, graded, or short-term. In comparison with placebo, caffeine improved test outcome by 12.3% (95% CI, 9.1 to 15.4), which was equivalent to an overall ES of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.51). Endurance exercise significantly improved test outcome (P < 0.05) more than either graded or short-term exercise. When exercise protocol was examined, time-to-exhaustion (Tlim) protocols had a significantly greater (P < 0.05) ES than either the graded or the non-Tlim protocol(s). The results from this meta-analysis confirm the ergogenic effects of caffeine, particularly for endurance testing that use Tlim protocols.

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Sandra A. Billinger, Eric D. Vidoni, Jill K. Morris, John P. Thyfault and Jeffrey M. Burns

Positive physiologic and cognitive responses to aerobic exercise have resulted in a proposed cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness hypothesis in which fitness gains drive changes leading to cognitive benefit. The purpose of this study was to directly assess the CR fitness hypothesis. Using data from an aerobic exercise trial, we examined individuals who completed cardiopulmonary and cognitive testing at baseline and 26 weeks. Change in cognitive test performance was not related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .06, p = .06). However, in the subset of individuals who gave excellent effort during exercise testing, change in cognitive test performance was related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .33, p < .01). This was largely due to change in the cognitive domain of attention (r 2 = .36, p < .01). The magnitude of change was not explained by duration of exercise. Our findings support further investigation of the CR fitness hypothesis and mechanisms by which physiologic adaptation may drive cognitive change.