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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

, Ohno, & Atalay, 2013 ; Reid, Shoji, Moody, & Entman, 1992 ; Sjodin, Hellsten Westing, & Apple, 1990 ; Vina et al., 2000 ). It is thought that because endurance exercise can increase ROS production by skeletal muscles, habitual exercise training may upregulate muscles' antioxidant defense system

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Richard D. Kauffman, Gary S. Sforzo, Blaise Frost and Mikel K. Todd

Ten adult volunteers participated in Id weeks of cardiovascular exercise training (EG) to determine the effects of training on resting prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Six volunteers of similar age served as sedentary controls (CG). Blood was collected in tubes after training and eicosanoids were measured by standard 125I RIA methods. Over the 16 weeks of the study, PGI2 decreased 48% for EG and 33% for CG. There were no between-group differences for PGI2 values. No significant within-group changes in TXA2 were found, whereas between-group pretraining TXA2 values were significantly different. A time main effect for PGI2 may indicate a seasonal shift in this eicosanoid: however, the additional 15% decrease in PGI2 for EG may be due to a training-induced reduction in PGI2 substrate and/or endothelial sensitivity to agonists. The lack of within-group changes in TXA2 may be due to a combination of high platelet turnover and a training stimulus inadequate to alter platelet function.

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Bente M. Raafs, Esther G.A. Karssemeijer, Lizzy Van der Horst, Justine A. Aaronson, Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert and Roy P.C. Kessels

selected articles to identify any possible additional relevant papers. Eligibility Criteria and Study Selection Studies were eligible for inclusion when the following criteria were met: (a) a sample of healthy individuals older than 65 years, (b) physical exercise training as an intervention, (c

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Claire Peel, Carolyn Utsey and Jan MacGregor

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an 8-week supervised exercise program on physiological measurements during treadmill walking, muscle strength, functional performance, and health status in older adults limited in physical function. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, N = 13) or a control group (CG, N = 11), and were evaluated before and after the exercise program (EG) or 8-week period (CG). Evaluations included a progressive treadmill lest, strength testing, the Physical Performance Test (PPT), and the SF-36 Health Survey. The exercise program consisted of 3 sessions per week of brisk walking and strengthening exercises. The EG demonstrated increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and increases in treadmill walking time. The EG also demonstrated increases in force production in 3 of the 6 muscle groups that were tested. Both the EG and CG demonstrated improvements in PPT scores and in 2 health concepts on the SF-36 Health Survey.

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Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun

]) completed the study (Figure  1 ). Twenty-three of the patients were right-handed, and 2 were left-handed. Patients were asked not to seek other medical interventions for neck pain during the treatment. Figure 1 —CONSORT flow diagram. Interventions Exercise Training Patients were randomized into 2 groups for

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Sharon Ann Plowman

This paper describes the effects of exercise training on the somatic, skeletal, and sexual maturation of children. Young athletes of both sexes grow at the same rate and to the same extent as young nonathletes. However, there is evidence that the pubertal development of young female athletes may be delayed. Menarche is more consistently late than either thelarche or pubarche. Genetic and environmental factors are explored in an attempt to determine causative mechanisms. Longitudinal training data are needed for both boys and girls on a variety of physical and hormonal variables. Until such data are available, it is recommended that all children engage in regular physical activity but that maturational progress be monitored in those involved in strenuous competitive training.

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela and José María Cancela

necessary, as it has been observed that exercise has a selective protective effect on the cognitive function of middle-aged women. 3 However, research on the relationship between physical exercise training and cognitive function in healthy adult people remains scarce, particularly in women, who have been

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Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka and Daroonwan Suksom

dysfunction, evidence of microvascular impairment is also apparent in diabetes even at the time of diagnosis as impairment in skin blood flow occurs early in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes ( Sandeman et al., 1991 ). Regular physical activity, especially moderate aerobic exercise training performed on

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

marker of systemic arterial stiffness and increased risk for cardiovascular events ( 38 ). Therefore, obese children and adolescents need to take part in strategies that counteract the accumulation of adipose tissue and prevent inflammatory disorders such as IR and arterial stiffness. Exercise training

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Christopher Kaufman, Aaron S. Kelly, Dan R. Kaiser, Julia Steinberger and Donald R. Dengel

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an 8-week aerobic-exercise training program on ventilatory threshold and ventilatory efficiency in overweight children. Twenty overweight children (BMI > 85th percentile) performed a graded cycle exercise test at baseline and were then randomly assigned to 8 weeks of stationary cycling (n = 10) or a nonexercising control group (n = 10). Ventilatory variables were examined at ventilatory threshold (VT), which was determined via the Dmax method. After 8 weeks, significant improvements occurred in the exercise group compared with the control group for oxygen uptake at VT (exercise = 1.03 ± 0.13 to 1.32 ± 0.12 L/min vs. control = 1.20 ± 0.10 to 1.11 ± 0.10 L/min, p < .05) and ventilatory equivalent of carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2) at VT (exercise = 32.8 ± 0.80 to 31.0 ± 0.53 vs. control = 30.3 ± 0.88 to 31.7 ± 0.91, p < .05). Aerobic-exercise training might help reverse the decrements in cardiopulmonary function observed over time in overweight children.