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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

, Ohno, & Atalay, 2013 ; Reid, Shoji, Moody, & Entman, 1992 ; Sjodin, Hellsten Westing, & Apple, 1990 ; Vina et al., 2000 ). It is thought that because endurance exercise can increase ROS production by skeletal muscles, habitual exercise training may upregulate muscles' antioxidant defense system

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Richard D. Kauffman, Gary S. Sforzo, Blaise Frost and Mikel K. Todd

Ten adult volunteers participated in Id weeks of cardiovascular exercise training (EG) to determine the effects of training on resting prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Six volunteers of similar age served as sedentary controls (CG). Blood was collected in tubes after training and eicosanoids were measured by standard 125I RIA methods. Over the 16 weeks of the study, PGI2 decreased 48% for EG and 33% for CG. There were no between-group differences for PGI2 values. No significant within-group changes in TXA2 were found, whereas between-group pretraining TXA2 values were significantly different. A time main effect for PGI2 may indicate a seasonal shift in this eicosanoid: however, the additional 15% decrease in PGI2 for EG may be due to a training-induced reduction in PGI2 substrate and/or endothelial sensitivity to agonists. The lack of within-group changes in TXA2 may be due to a combination of high platelet turnover and a training stimulus inadequate to alter platelet function.

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Vicente de Dios Álvarez and Carlos Ayán Pérez

group, (2) the sample was made up of subjects serving sentence in prison, (3) an exercise training program was proposed as the main intervention, (4) at least one primary outcome measure (ie, physical condition, mental health) was reported, and (5) details regarding the training load were provided

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Bente M. Raafs, Esther G.A. Karssemeijer, Lizzy Van der Horst, Justine A. Aaronson, Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert and Roy P.C. Kessels

selected articles to identify any possible additional relevant papers. Eligibility Criteria and Study Selection Studies were eligible for inclusion when the following criteria were met: (a) a sample of healthy individuals older than 65 years, (b) physical exercise training as an intervention, (c

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Claire Peel, Carolyn Utsey and Jan MacGregor

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an 8-week supervised exercise program on physiological measurements during treadmill walking, muscle strength, functional performance, and health status in older adults limited in physical function. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, N = 13) or a control group (CG, N = 11), and were evaluated before and after the exercise program (EG) or 8-week period (CG). Evaluations included a progressive treadmill lest, strength testing, the Physical Performance Test (PPT), and the SF-36 Health Survey. The exercise program consisted of 3 sessions per week of brisk walking and strengthening exercises. The EG demonstrated increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and increases in treadmill walking time. The EG also demonstrated increases in force production in 3 of the 6 muscle groups that were tested. Both the EG and CG demonstrated improvements in PPT scores and in 2 health concepts on the SF-36 Health Survey.

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Jordan Jacobson, Cale Chaltron, David Sherman and Neal R. Glaviano

results of the systematic review with meta-analysis concluded that there is evidence to support the belief that low-load exercise training with blood flow restriction (LL-BFR) may increase muscle strength beyond low-load (LL) exercise training alone, while high-load (HL) training will produce greater

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Alexandre M. Lehnen, Graziela H. Pinto, Júlia Borges, Melissa M. Markoski and Beatriz D. Schaan

%), and cardiac tissue (+21%) after 10 weeks of aerobic training in SHR ( Lehnen et al., 2011 ). However, few studies have demonstrated the reversibility of the benefits of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and GLUT4 content with the cessation of exercise training, which is quite common in daily

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Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun

]) completed the study (Figure  1 ). Twenty-three of the patients were right-handed, and 2 were left-handed. Patients were asked not to seek other medical interventions for neck pain during the treatment. Figure 1 —CONSORT flow diagram. Interventions Exercise Training Patients were randomized into 2 groups for

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Sharon Ann Plowman

This paper describes the effects of exercise training on the somatic, skeletal, and sexual maturation of children. Young athletes of both sexes grow at the same rate and to the same extent as young nonathletes. However, there is evidence that the pubertal development of young female athletes may be delayed. Menarche is more consistently late than either thelarche or pubarche. Genetic and environmental factors are explored in an attempt to determine causative mechanisms. Longitudinal training data are needed for both boys and girls on a variety of physical and hormonal variables. Until such data are available, it is recommended that all children engage in regular physical activity but that maturational progress be monitored in those involved in strenuous competitive training.

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Charity B. Breneman, Christopher E. Kline, Delia West, Xuemei Sui and Xuewen Wang

period ( Irish et al., 2014 ). Thus, the differences in PA levels between days may have been minimal, resulting in little observable impact on sleep parameters. A clearer picture of the acute impact of PA on sleep may be found in individuals who participate in a structured exercise training regimen that