was the following: What are the exercise values in relation to exercise behavior and experiences? To our knowledge, no other studies in kinesiology have used this approach ( Kosma et al., 2015 ). Design and Procedures Drawing on the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology, we conducted a qualitative
Maria Kosma, David Buchanan and Jan Hondzinski
Jane C. Golden, Kathleen F. Janz, William R. Clarke and Larry T. Mahoney
This paper demonstrates the reliability, validity, and practical applications of a unique protocol developed to obtain both submaximal steady-state and peak exercise responses in the same test in children and adolescents. The study examined exercise efficiency, cardiovascular fitness, and cardiovascular responses in 237 children, ages 7 to 17, during exercise stress on a cycle ergometer. The graded exercise test was continuous, consisting of three steady-state submaximal stages followed by 30-sec ramp stages to obtain peak values. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from r=0.69 to r=0.99, with no significant mean difference for any test parameter. Mean peak heart rate, peak VO2, and 84% of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values equal to or greater than 1.1 were comparable to other reported values. The validity for the protocol is substantiated by the results showing normal linear exercise responses, nonsignificant mean difference between the last two 30-sec periods, normal mean peak heart rate and VO2 values, and high mean peak RER values. The protocol is practical, as demonstrated by an optimal test duration and the ability to obtain valid submaximal and peak exercise data in the same test in subjects of varying ages and body size.
Andrea D. Marjerrison, Jonah D. Lee and Anthony D. Mahon
This study examined the effect of pre exercise carbohydrate (CHO) feeding on performance on a Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) in 11 boys (10.2 ± 1.3 y old). Four WAnTs with 2 min recovery were performed 30 min after consuming a CHO (1 g CHO/kg) or placebo drink. Peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) were similar between trials. PP ranged from 241.1 ± 82.2 to 223.1 ± 57.9 W with carbohydrate and from 238.2 ± 76.1 to 223.4 ± 52.3 W with placebo. MP ranged from 176.3 ± 58.4 to 151.1 ± 37.5 W with carbohydrate versus 178.0 ± 45.8 to 159.1 ± 32.7 W with placebo. Pre exercise glucose was significantly higher in CHO versus placebo (7.0 ± 1.0 vs. 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L), but post exercise values were not different. Blood lactate was similar between trials but increased over time. This study found that the ingestion of a CHO solution before exercise did not influence power output during repeated performances of the WAnT.
Helaine M. Alessio, Allan H. Goldfarb and Guohua Cao
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) was supplemented (1 g/day) for 1 day and 2 weeks in the same subjects. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TB ARS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) before and after 30 min submaximal exercise were measured. Different vitamin C supplementations did not affect resting TB ARS or ORAC. Following 30 min exercise, values for TBARS were 12.6 and 33% above rest with 1 day and 2 weeks of vitamin C supplementation, respectively, compared to 46% higher with placebo. ORAC did not significantly change (11%) after exercise with a placebo, nor when subjects were given vitamin C supplements for 1 day or 2 weeks (4.9% and 5.73%, respectively). TBARS:ORAC, a ratio representing oxidative stress, increased 32% (p < .05) with placebo compared to 5.8 and 25.8% with vitamin C supplements for 1 day and 2 weeks, respectively. It was concluded that exercise-induced oxidative stress was highest when subjects did not supplement with vitamin C compared to either 1 day or 2 weeks of vitamin C supplementation.
Al Haddad Hani, Paul B. Laursen, Ahmaidi Said and Buchheit Martin
To assess the effect of supramaximal intermittent exercise on long-term cardiac autonomic activity, inferred from heart rate variability (HRV).
Eleven healthy males performed a series of two consecutive intermittent 15-s runs at 95% VIFT (i.e., speed reached at the end of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test) interspersed with 15 s of active recovery at 45% VIFT until exhaustion. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded during two consecutive nights (habituation night and 1st night) before, 10 min before and immediately after exercise, as well as 12 h (2nd night) and 36 h (3rd night) after supramaximal intermittent exercise. The HRV indices were calculated from the last 5 min of resting and recovery periods, and the first 10 min of the first estimated slow wave sleep period.
Immediate post-supramaximal exercise vagal-related HRV indices were significantly lower than immediate pre-supramaximal exercise values (P < .001). Most vagal-related indices were lower during the 2nd night compared with the 1st night (eg, mean RR intervals, P = .03). Compared with the 2nd night, vagal-related HRV indices were significantly higher during the 3rd night. Variables were not different between the 1st and 3rd nights; however, we noted a tendency (adjusted effect size, aES) for an increased normalized high-frequency component (P = .06 and aES = 0.70) and a tendency toward a decreased low-frequency component (P = .06 and aES = 0.74).
Results confirm the strong influence of exercise intensity on short- and long-term post exercise heart rate variability recovery and might help explain the high efficiency of supramaximal training for enhancing indices of cardiorespiratory fitness.
Julia C. Orri, Elizabeth M. Hughes, Deepa G. Mistry and Antone Scala
in older men and women (71 years), suggesting strong functioning of the sinus node ( Soares-Miranda et al., 2014 ). In the present study, SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2, DFA α1, and TINN were all significantly different from the exercise values during recovery. In addition, the Poincaré ratio (SD1/SD2) and DFA α1
John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte
of perceived exertion values did not differ between trials at any time point during performance (Figure 4 ). Figure 4 —Mean (SD) exercising values for heart rate in (A) women and (B) men. RPE in (C) women and (D) men during each of the 3 trial conditions, placebo, 2 mg inhaled-terbutaline, and 4 mg
Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton
difference from preexercise, ** p < .05 significant difference from postexercise, *** p < .05 significant main effect of condition. In accordance with postexercise CHO intake, insulin increased from pre- and post-exercise values ( p = .034), although the magnitude of change was not different between
Philippe Hellard, Robin Pla, Ferran A. Rodríguez, David Simbana and David B. Pyne
validated technique, 4 and the common method used by the French Swimming Federation. However, Chaverri et al 30 showed that this method underestimates exercise values by ∼4.5% in a 200-m trial. It can nevertheless be assumed that the faster V ˙ O 2 off-kinetics after the 100-m swim compared with a 200-m
Chun-Chih Wang, Brandon Alderman, Chih-Han Wu, Lin Chi, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu and Yu-Kai Chang
intervals between the exercises. Descriptive data for resistance exercise values are presented in Table 2 . Table 2 Descriptive Data (in pounds) for the Resistance-Exercise Manipulation, M ± SD Variable Men Women Total Leg press 178.25 ± 73.61 137.94 ± 71.66 160.34 ± 74.53 Leg extension 82.50 ± 24.89 66