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Sophie A. Kay and Lisa R. Grimm

this recommendation ( Ward, Schiller, Freeman, & Peregoy, 2013 ). Considering the population’s lack of aerobic activity and strength training, it is important to examine the psychological processes that affect physical activity motivation and exercise performance. The solution we propose is tailoring

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Nicholas Hattrup, Hannah Gray, Mark Krumholtz and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

Clinical Scenario The fifth international conference on concussion in sport recommends integrating supervised aerobic exercise early in the treatment phase and reducing periods of rest to only 24 to 48 hours after injury. 1 Previous reasoning behind rest was that it reduced the risk for subsequent

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Kazuhiro Harada, Kouhei Masumoto and Narihiko Kondo

domains. The major component of leisure-time physical activity is exercise. 7 , 9 Exercise is conceptualized as physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and designed to promote physical fitness and health. 7 , 9 Desirable effects of exercise on mental health status, such as depression

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Frances A. Kanach, Amy M. Pastva, Katherine S. Hall, Juliessa M. Pavon and Miriam C. Morey

effects in healthy, community-dwelling adults, structured exercise is one intervention of interest ( Anderson-Hanley, Nimon, & Westen, 2010 ; Bean, Vora, & Frontera, 2004 ; Hulya, Sevi, Serap, & Ayse, 2015 ; Nelson et al., 2007 ; Penedo & Dahn, 2005 ; Wang, Yeh, Wang, Wang, Lin, 2011 ). It has been

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Shijun Zhu, Eun-Shim Nahm, Barbara Resnick, Erika Friedmann, Clayton Brown, Jumin Park, Jooyoung Cheon and DoHwan Park

Exercise is an important contributor to the health of older adults. As people age, they face increasing health risks. Current guidelines for exercise state that older adults need to engage in both aerobic and resistive exercise weekly to optimize health. In addition, balance exercise should be

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Franziska Antoniewicz and Ralf Brand

The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the “pleasantness” of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can detect automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior.

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Franziska Antoniewicz and Ralf Brand

This multistudy report used an experimental approach to alter automatic evaluations of exercise (AEE). First, we investigated the plasticity of AEE (study 1). A computerized evaluative conditioning task was developed that altered the AEE of participants in two experimental groups (acquisition of positive/negative associations involving exercising) and a control group (ηpart. 2 = .11). Second, we examined connections between changes in AEE and subsequent exercise behavior (chosen intensity on a bike ergometer; study 2) in individuals that were placed in groups according to their baseline AEE. Group differences in exercise behavior were detected (ηpart. 2 = .29). The effect was driven by the performance of the group with preexisting negative AEE that acquired more positive associations. This illustrates the effect of altered AEE on subsequent exercise behavior and the potential of AEE as a target for exercise intervention.

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Jayshree Shah, Tarushi Tanwar, Iram Iram, Mosab Aldabbas and Zubia Veqar

physiotherapy program for CLBP patients is an appropriate exercise program focusing on lumbar stabilization, after the symptoms have been evaluated and diagnosed. 9 These exercises optimize trunk muscle function while improving the trunk coactivation pattern, which ensures a stable spine. 10 As these

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Ira Jacobs, Ethan Ruderman and Mackenzie McLaughlin

A traditional focus of exercise scientists studying the interaction of drugs and exercise has been on the effects of drugs on exercise performance or functional capacity. In contrast, there is limited information available about the effects of exercise on the efficacy of drugs that have been prescribed and ingested for therapeutic reasons. Those requesting the approval for the manufacture, distribution, and sale of new drugs to the public are required to submit evidence of drug effectiveness and safety to drug regulatory bodies. But, there is no associated requirement to include among that evidence the interactions of exercise with drugs. However, the physiological adaptations to acute and chronic exercise are such that there is good reason to suspect that exercise has the potential to significantly influence drug absorption and bioavailability, drug distribution within the body, and drug elimination from the body. This paper reviews the potential for interaction between exercise and pharmacokinetics.

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Kim Poag and Edward McAuley

Whereas the success of goal setting is well documented in the industrial-organizational literature (Locke & Latham, 1990), the empirical efforts to determine its effectiveness in sport settings have met with minimal success, and no studies exist that document the role played by goals in successful adherence to exercise regimens. We examined the relationships among goals, efficacy, and exercise behavior in the context of community conditioning classes. Female participants' goal efficacy was predictive of perceived goal achievement at the end of the program, and exercise self-efficacy was significantly related to subsequent intensity but not frequency of exercise participation. Moreover, a proposed interaction between exercise importance and self-efficacy failed to account for further variation in physical activity participation. The results are discussed in terms of the physical activity history of the sample and the roles played by goals and efficacy at diverse stages of the exercise process.