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Symeon P. Vlachopoulos and Maria A. Gigoudi

This article reports on the development and initial validation of the Amotivation Toward Exercise Scale (ATES), which reflects a taxonomy of older adults’ reasons to refrain from exercise. Drawing on work by Pelletier, Dion, Tuson, and Green-Demers (1999) and Legault, Green-Demers, and Pelletier (2006), these dimensions were the outcome beliefs, capacity beliefs, effort beliefs, and value amotivation beliefs toward exercise. The results supported a 4-factor correlated model that fit the data better than either a unidimensional model or a 4-factor uncorrelated model or a hierarchical model with strong internal reliability for all the subscales. Evidence also emerged for the discriminant validity of the subscale scores. Furthermore, the predictive validity of the subscale scores was supported, and satisfactory measurement invariance was demonstrated across the calibration and validation samples, supporting the generalizability of the scale’s measurement properties.

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Matthew O. Fullmer, Carol Wilkinson, Keven A. Prusak, Dennis Eggett, and Todd Pennington

-determined motivation to exercise. Amotivation, external regulation, identified regulation, and intrinsic regulation are each assessed by four items and introjected regulation is assessed by three items. For example, an intrinsic regulation item on the BREQ-2 states, “I exercise because it’s fun.” Mean scores for each