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Noah M.A. d’Unienville, Maximillian J. Nelson, Clint R. Bellenger, Henry T. Blake, and Jonathan D. Buckley

In order to prescribe appropriate training loads to improve exercise performance, one must know how an athlete is responding to a change in load. The maximal rate of heart-rate increase (rHRI) is a marker of heart-rate (HR) acceleration that has been shown to change in response to acute 1 and

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway ( Cimino et al., 2013 ; Yan et al., 2017 ). Nrf2 is a transcription factor regulating gene expression of antioxidant proteins. Oh et al. ( 2017 ) observed upregulation of Nrf2 in mice and increased endurance exercise performance, and similar

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Alex M. Ehlert, Hannah M. Twiddy, and Patrick B. Wilson

 al., 2019 ; De Ataide e Silva et al., 2014 ). These effects of carbohydrate mouth rinsing may be mediated via sweetness properties, although changes in exercise performance and brain activation patterns have been observed even after accounting for the sweetness of carbohydrate beverages ( Chambers et

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Daniel G. Hursh, Marissa N. Baranauskas, Chad C. Wiggins, Shane Bielko, Timothy D. Mickleborough, and Robert F. Chapman

Endurance exercise performance in hypoxia is impaired partly due to declines in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (S p O 2 ), 1 which may limit the delivery of oxygen to exercising muscle. A well-established mechanism of defending S p O 2 during hypoxic exercise is to increase minute ventilation

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Tuyen Le, Jeffrey D. Graham, Sara King-Dowling, and John Cairney

studies have looked beyond physical impairments, such as motor deficits and cardiovascular functioning, to explain lower exercise performance in these children. Other prominent underlying mechanisms known to affect exercise performance, such as various psychological variables ( Rhodes, 2017 ), remain

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Adrián Castillo-García, and Alejandro Lucia

, higher mechanical work for a given energy cost). 7 There is therefore biological rationale for a potential ergogenic effect of ketone supplementation on endurance exercise performance, which in fact is a topic that has gained much popularity in recent years. 5 – 7 A seminal study of Cox et al 8 found that acute

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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous, and Marios Hadjicharalambous

examination of the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance. Soccer is a popular sport around the world, in which aerobic endurance is of prime importance due to its long duration (90 min) and the need for rapid energy substrate restoration through aerobic metabolism between high

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Blair Crewther, Christian Cook, John Fitzgerald, Michal Starczewski, Michal Gorski, and Joanna Orysiak

others suggested that a higher total concentration (up to 90 ng·mL −1 ) might be necessary for manifesting a skeletal muscle response ( 6 ). An alternative, and biologically plausible, explanation is that 25(OH)D forms part of a network of hormones that interact to regulate exercise performance. Male

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, Georgios Mavropalias, and Chris R. Abbiss

performance effects associated with heat stress. 14 – 15 Heat acclimation can be achieved both through passive or active thermal exposure, though the benefits of passive acclimation on exercise performance have been less clear. 16 Interestingly, the effects of short-term heat acclimation protocols have been

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Emma M. Crum, Matthew J. Barnes, and Stephen R. Stannard

exercise performance because the increased O 2 flux through metabolic pathways exacerbates the production and accumulation of ROS and increases the rate of NO breakdown ( Ferreira & Reid, 2008 ). However, despite the positive effects of acute POMx supplementation shown by Trexler et al. ( 2014 ), a