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Emma S. Cowley, Alyssa A. Olenick, Kelly L. McNulty, and Emma Z. Ross

and dissemination of effective strategies that optimize the health and performance of sportswomen. Despite the decreasing sex gap in sport and exercise participation, there remains a sex data gap within sport and exercise science research. Specifically, Costello et al. ( 2014 ) concluded that females

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland, and Alex V. Rowlands

Introduction The Expert’s Choice section aims to highlight the most significant or exciting papers in specific areas of pediatric exercise science, published in the preceding year (2018). A “significant” or “exciting” publication is one that either: (a) reveals a new mechanism, (b) highlights a new

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Sid Mitchell, E. Michael Loovis, and Stephen A. Butterfield

investigations account for multifaceted change through appropriate design and analysis. In this paper, we argue for the use of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an approach to analyzing data in the exercise sciences as this method more clearly captures the effects of developmental changes in physical

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Alon Eliakim

The Pediatric Exercise Science Year That Was section aims to highlight the most important (to the author’s opinion) manuscripts that were published in 2016 in the field of endocrinology and pediatric exercise science. This year’s selection includes studies showing that 1) Induction of T4 to T3 conversion by type 2 deiodinase following aerobic exercise in skeletal muscles was associated with concomitant increase in peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and therefore plays an important mechanistic role in the muscle adaptation to exercise training. 2) Hypothyroidism in fetal and early postnatal life was associated with impaired spatial learning and memory and with reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in male and female rat pups. Forced (treadmill) and voluntary (wheel) exercise alleviated all these biochemical and neuro-cognitive deficits. 3) The relationship between different exercise intensities and carbohydrate requirements to maintain euglycemia at basal insulin levels among adolescent and young adults with Type 1 diabetes are nonlinear but rather inverted- U with no exogenous glucose required to maintain stable glucose level at high-intensity exercise (80%). The implication of these studies to the pediatric population, their importance and the new research avenues that were opened by these studies is emphasized.

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Thomas Rowland

Interest in the physiological responses to exercise unique to the pediatric age group has grown exponentially over the past 50 years. A number of issues surrounding children’s exercise have been particularly responsible for this trend, particularly a) recognition of the health benefits of exercise in youth, b) the growing involvement of young persons in highly intense levels of sports play, and c) the role that exercise may play in the diagnosis and management of children with chronic disease. As a consequence, current research to date has provided a comprehensive picture of the features specific to children’s response to exercise. Future challenges facing the field of pediatric exercise science involve translating this information into practical guidelines which can be applied to the realms of clinical medical practice, preventive health initiatives, and athletic training regimens which are appropriate for this age group.

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Alon Eliakim

The Pediatric Exercise Science “Year That Was” section aims to highlight the most important (to the author’s opinion) manuscripts that were published in 2017 in the field of endocrinology and pediatric exercise science. This year’s selection includes studies showing that 1) in pubertal swimmers, there is a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) during intense training (a catabolic-type hormonal response) with an anabolic “rebound” characterized by a significant increase of these growth factors during training tapering down. Moreover, it was shown that changes of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 paralleled changes in peak and average force but not with endurance properties, showing decreases during intense training and increases during tapering; 2) a meta-analysis showing that growth hormone administration elicits significant changes in body composition and possible limited effect on anaerobic performance but does not increase either muscle strength or aerobic exercise capacity in healthy, young subjects; and 3) short-term exercise intervention can prevent the development of polycystic ovary syndrome in a dose-dependent manner in letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome rat model with high-intensity exercise being most effective. The implication of these studies to the pediatric population, their importance, and the new research avenues that were opened by these studies is emphasized.

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Ali McManus

It is with great pleasure and honour that I assume the responsibilities of Editor-in-Chief of Pediatric Exercise Science from Professor Bareket Falk. Professor Falk served as Editor-in-Chief since 2012, following in the visionary footsteps of the journal’s founding editor, Professor Thomas

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Sean M. Bulger and Lynn D. Housner

The purpose of this study was to determine the critical exercise science competencies and associated instructional methods recommended for inclusion in the physical education teacher education curriculum. The two-round modified Delphi procedure involved the repeated circulation of a questionnaire to a small panel of content experts. The Delphi panel members were asked to rate each questionnaire item in terms of theoretical importance and pedagogical relevance. The data collected during the second round of questioning were employed to provide a final measure of consensus regarding the critical strength of each exercise science competency. The Delphi panel members were also asked to complete an addendum survey concerning their recommendations regarding the most effective instructional methods for the delivery of exercise science content. The results of this process provide a conceptual framework upon which physical education teacher educators can make future curricular decisions in the area of exercise science.

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Dan M. Cooper

The purpose of this review is to focus on several intersecting journeys, new pathways necessary to advance the field of exercise medicine and exercise science in child health. We will cover the journey of concept and discovery in which novel technologies are reshaping how we measure and gauge

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Lynda B. Ransdell, Mary K. Dinger, Stacy Beske, and Colleen Cooke

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors related to success in academic publishing for women in exercise science. Two trained investigators conducted hand searches of 7 prominent exercise science journals to ascertain the names of the most prolific women authors between 1991 and 1996. Seventeen (17) women, whose names will not be revealed (due to confidentiality), were identified. Following their identification, women were asked to submit a copy of their vita and complete a questionnaire related to scholarly productivity. Thirteen out of seventeen women agreed to participate in the study, yielding a response rate of 76%. Personal attributes that contributed most to their success in publishing were self-motivation, discipline, and perseverance. Situational or sociological factors mentioned were the availability of mentors, talented collaborators, and institutional or personal support. Some tips for maximizing productivity include having proper preparation and a narrow focus, and developing skills in writing, research design, and analysis. Women reported many gender-related barriers early in their careers, but these barriers faded with experience and reputation establishment. The two most frequent recommendations for ensuring successful collaborations with others were completing work in a timely fashion and being a team player. Sacrifices made for publishing included fewer social interactions and less time for leisure activities and vacations. With the exception of some barriers related to gender, our findings are in agreement with others who have examined correlates of productivity in mixed samples of men and women from a variety of fields.