Eccentric muscle contractions are typically responsible for the muscular disruption that leads to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD; Nikolaidis et al., 2007 ). Therefore, resistance training and intermittent high-intensity exercise often evoke EIMD ( Owens et al., 2019 ). Consequences of EIMD
Liam D. Corr, Adam Field, Deborah Pufal, Jenny Killey, Tom Clifford, Liam D. Harper, and Robert J. Naughton
Peter M. Tiidus, Joel Cort, Sarah J. Woodruff, and Pamela Bryden
To evaluate ultrasound’s effectiveness after eccentric-exercise-induced muscle damage.
Random assignment to ultrasound (UT) or placebo (PT). Ultrasound was applied immediately and 24, 48, and 72 h after 50 maximum eccentric contractions of the biceps.
Concentric and eccentric peak torques, resting elbow angle, and subjective muscle soreness were measured before and 24, 48, 72, and 96 h afterward.
No significant differences between UT and PT for biceps concentric or eccentric peak torque were noted. Both groups exhibited significant (P < .01) depression in eccentric and concentric peak torques with a slow return toward preexercise values over 96 h. Resting elbow angles for both groups were significantly lower than preexercise values up to 96 h (P < .01). Muscle soreness increased significantly (P < .05) at 24 and 48 h and returned to preexercise levels by 96 h.
Daily ultrasound did not influence recovery after eccentric-exercise-induced muscle damage.
Bethany Northeast and Tom Clifford
Unaccustomed or strenuous exercise encompassing high force eccentric (i.e., lengthening) muscle contractions can cause ultrastructural damage to skeletal muscle, which is typically referred to as exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD; Hyldahl & Hubal, 2014 ). Symptoms of EIMD include impaired force
Hannah L. Stedge and Kirk Armstrong
Clinical Scenario Endurance sports, any single or multiple event distance 26.2 miles or longer, require extensive amounts of training to optimize performance, nutrition, and recovery. Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), indicated by delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), occurs during long bouts
Chariklia K. Deli, Ioannis G. Fatouros, Vassilis Paschalis, Kalliopi Georgakouli, Athanasios Zalavras, Alexandra Avloniti, Yiannis Koutedakis, and Athanasios Z. Jamurtas
Research regarding exercise-induced muscle-damage mainly focuses on adults. The present study examined exercise-induced muscle-damage responses in adults compared with children.
Eleven healthy boys (10–12 y) and 15 healthy men (18–45 y) performed 5 sets of 15 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during squat and walking, and peak isometric, concentric and eccentric torque were assessed before, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was assessed before and 72 hr postexercise.
Eccentric exercise resulted in DOMS during squat that persisted for up to 96h in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .05), and DOMS during walking that persisted for up to 72 hr in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .01). The ROM was lower in both age groups 48 hr postexercise (p < .001). Isometric (p < .001), concentric (p < .01) and eccentric (p < .01) force decreased post, and up to 48 hr postexercise in men. Except for a reduction in isometric force immediately after exercise, no other changes occurred in boys’ isokinetic force. CK activity increased in men at 72 hr postexercise compared with pre exercise levels (p = .05).
Our data provide further confirmation that children are less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage compared with adults.
Jaci L. VanHeest, Jim Stoppani, Tim P. Scheett, Valerie Collins, Melissa Roti, Jeffrey Anderson, George J. Allen, Jay Hoffman, William J. Kraemer, and Carl M. Maresh
To determine the effects of Vicoprofen® and ibuprofen on aerobic performance, agility, and pain after exercise-induced muscle damage.
Double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-dose clinical trial.
Human-performance and sports-medicine laboratory.
36 healthy men.
Methods and Measures:
Baseline testing was performed, 72 hours after which subjects performed eccentric exercise to induce muscle damage. They were evaluated for pain 24 hours postdamage and placed randomly into 3 groups: Vicoprofen (VIC), ibuprofen, or placebo (P). Postdamage testing was performed every day for 5 days. Subjects performed an economy run and a t-agility test to determine exercise performance.
The drugs had no significant effect on performance throughout the 5-day evaluation period. Pain was lower at days 4 and 5 in the VIC group than in P.
It appears that Vicoprofen reduced pain after muscle damage, but the drug interventions did not enhance performance in aerobic and agility tasks.
Abd-Elbasset Abaïdia, Julien Lamblin, Barthélémy Delecroix, Cédric Leduc, Alan McCall, Mathieu Nédélec, Brian Dawson, Georges Baquet, and Grégory Dupont
To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage.
Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at –110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise.
Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = –0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = –0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = –0.68; 90% CI = –1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = –0.62; 90% CI = –1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes.
CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24–48 h postexercise.
Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett, and Matthew Barnes
This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately postexercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg predamage, 36 hr post, and 60 hr post damage. Venous blood creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle soreness ratings were taken before damage and once per day to 60 hr post damage. Significant differences were observed between the exercised and control leg for maximal concentric, and eccentric torque and isometric tension (p < .05). A near significant Treatment × Time interaction was observed for isometric tension (p = .077), but not for concentric or eccentric torque. No main effects of treatment (alcohol) or interactions with Time × Leg or Leg × Treatment were observed. Perceived muscle soreness during box stepping and squatting showed significant time effects (p < .05), and CK activity did not significantly change. Our results indicate that the consumption of 0.88g ethanol/kg body weight following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage does not affect recovery in the days following damage in females.
Daniel H. Serravite, Arlette Perry, Kevin A. Jacobs, Jose A. Adams, Kysha Harriell, and Joseph F. Signorile
To examine the effects of whole-body periodic acceleration (pGz) on exercise-induced-muscle-damage (EIMD) -related symptoms induced by unaccustomed eccentric arm exercise.
Seventeen active young men (23.4 ± 4.6 y) made 6 visits to the research facility over a 2-wk period. On day 1, subjects performed a 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) elbowflexion test and were randomly assigned to the pGz (n = 8) or control group (n = 9). Criterion measurements were taken on day 2, before and immediately after performance of the eccentric-exercise protocol (10 sets, 10 repetitions using 120% 1RM) and after the recovery period. During subsequent sessions (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) these data were collected before pGz or passive recovery. Measurements included isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]), blood markers (creatine kinase, myoglobin, IL-6, TNF-α, TBARS, PGF2α, protein carbonyls, uric acid, and nitrites), soreness, pain, circumference, and range of motion (ROM).
Significantly higher MVC values were seen for pGz throughout the recovery period. Within-group differences were seen in myoglobin, IL-6, IL-10, protein carbonyls, soreness, pain, circumference, and ROM showing small negative responses and rapid recovery for the pGz condition.
Our results demonstrate that pGz can be an effective tool for the reduction of EIMD and may contribute to the training-adaptation cycle by speeding up the recovery of the body due to its performance-loss-lessening effect.
François Bieuzen, Jeanick Brisswalter, Christopher Easthope, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Thierry Bernard, and Christophe Hausswirth
Compression garments are increasingly popular in long-distance running events where they are used to limit cumulative fatigue and symptoms associated with mild exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). However, the effective benefits remain unclear.
This study examined the effect of wearing compression stockings (CS) on EIMD indicators. Compression was applied during or after simulated trail races performed at competition pace in experienced off-road runners.
Eleven highly trained male runners participated in 3 simulated trail races (15.6 km: uphill section 6.6 km, average gradient 13%, and downhill section 9.0 km, average gradient –9%) in a randomized crossover trial. The effect of wearing CS while running or during recovery was tested and compared with a control condition (ie, run and recovery without CS; non- CS). Indicators of muscle function, muscle damage (creatine kinase; CK), inflammation (interleukin-6; IL-6), and perceived muscle soreness were recorded at baseline (1 h before warm-up) and 1, 24, and 48 h after the run.
Perceived muscle soreness was likely to be lower when participants wore CS during trail running compared with the control condition (1 h postrun, 82% chance; 24 h postrun, 80% chance). A likely or possibly beneficial effect of wearing CS during running was also found for isometric peak torque at 1 h postrun (70% chance) and 24 h postrun (60% chance) and throughout the recovery period on countermovement jump, compared with non-CS. Possible, trivial, or unclear differences were observed for CK and IL-6 between all conditions.
Wearing CS during simulated trail races mainly affects perceived leg soreness and muscle function. These benefits are visible very shortly after the start of the recovery period.