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Peter M. Tiidus, Joel Cort, Sarah J. Woodruff and Pamela Bryden

Objectives:

To evaluate ultrasound’s effectiveness after eccentric-exercise-induced muscle damage.

Participants:

22 subjects.

Intervention:

Random assignment to ultrasound (UT) or placebo (PT). Ultrasound was applied immediately and 24, 48, and 72 h after 50 maximum eccentric contractions of the biceps.

Outcome Measures:

Concentric and eccentric peak torques, resting elbow angle, and subjective muscle soreness were measured before and 24, 48, 72, and 96 h afterward.

Results:

No significant differences between UT and PT for biceps concentric or eccentric peak torque were noted. Both groups exhibited significant (P < .01) depression in eccentric and concentric peak torques with a slow return toward preexercise values over 96 h. Resting elbow angles for both groups were significantly lower than preexercise values up to 96 h (P < .01). Muscle soreness increased significantly (P < .05) at 24 and 48 h and returned to preexercise levels by 96 h.

Conclusions:

Daily ultrasound did not influence recovery after eccentric-exercise-induced muscle damage.

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Chariklia K. Deli, Ioannis G. Fatouros, Vassilis Paschalis, Kalliopi Georgakouli, Athanasios Zalavras, Alexandra Avloniti, Yiannis Koutedakis and Athanasios Z. Jamurtas

Purpose:

Research regarding exercise-induced muscle-damage mainly focuses on adults. The present study examined exercise-induced muscle-damage responses in adults compared with children.

Method:

Eleven healthy boys (10–12 y) and 15 healthy men (18–45 y) performed 5 sets of 15 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during squat and walking, and peak isometric, concentric and eccentric torque were assessed before, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was assessed before and 72 hr postexercise.

Results:

Eccentric exercise resulted in DOMS during squat that persisted for up to 96h in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .05), and DOMS during walking that persisted for up to 72 hr in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .01). The ROM was lower in both age groups 48 hr postexercise (p < .001). Isometric (p < .001), concentric (p < .01) and eccentric (p < .01) force decreased post, and up to 48 hr postexercise in men. Except for a reduction in isometric force immediately after exercise, no other changes occurred in boys’ isokinetic force. CK activity increased in men at 72 hr postexercise compared with pre exercise levels (p = .05).

Conclusion:

Our data provide further confirmation that children are less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage compared with adults.

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Jaci L. VanHeest, Jim Stoppani, Tim P. Scheett, Valerie Collins, Melissa Roti, Jeffrey Anderson, George J. Allen, Jay Hoffman, William J. Kraemer and Carl M. Maresh

Objective:

To determine the effects of Vicoprofen® and ibuprofen on aerobic performance, agility, and pain after exercise-induced muscle damage.

Design:

Double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-dose clinical trial.

Setting:

Human-performance and sports-medicine laboratory.

Participants:

36 healthy men.

Methods and Measures:

Baseline testing was performed, 72 hours after which subjects performed eccentric exercise to induce muscle damage. They were evaluated for pain 24 hours postdamage and placed randomly into 3 groups: Vicoprofen (VIC), ibuprofen, or placebo (P). Postdamage testing was performed every day for 5 days. Subjects performed an economy run and a t-agility test to determine exercise performance.

Results:

The drugs had no significant effect on performance throughout the 5-day evaluation period. Pain was lower at days 4 and 5 in the VIC group than in P.

Conclusions:

It appears that Vicoprofen reduced pain after muscle damage, but the drug interventions did not enhance performance in aerobic and agility tasks.

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Abd-Elbasset Abaïdia, Julien Lamblin, Barthélémy Delecroix, Cédric Leduc, Alan McCall, Mathieu Nédélec, Brian Dawson, Georges Baquet and Grégory Dupont

Purpose:

To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage.

Methods:

Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at –110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise.

Results:

Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = –0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = –0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = –0.68; 90% CI = –1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = –0.62; 90% CI = –1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes.

Conclusions:

CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24–48 h postexercise.

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Daniel H. Serravite, Arlette Perry, Kevin A. Jacobs, Jose A. Adams, Kysha Harriell and Joseph F. Signorile

Purpose:

To examine the effects of whole-body periodic acceleration (pGz) on exercise-induced-muscle-damage (EIMD) -related symptoms induced by unaccustomed eccentric arm exercise.

Methods:

Seventeen active young men (23.4 ± 4.6 y) made 6 visits to the research facility over a 2-wk period. On day 1, subjects performed a 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) elbowflexion test and were randomly assigned to the pGz (n = 8) or control group (n = 9). Criterion measurements were taken on day 2, before and immediately after performance of the eccentric-exercise protocol (10 sets, 10 repetitions using 120% 1RM) and after the recovery period. During subsequent sessions (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) these data were collected before pGz or passive recovery. Measurements included isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]), blood markers (creatine kinase, myoglobin, IL-6, TNF-α, TBARS, PGF2α, protein carbonyls, uric acid, and nitrites), soreness, pain, circumference, and range of motion (ROM).

Results:

Significantly higher MVC values were seen for pGz throughout the recovery period. Within-group differences were seen in myoglobin, IL-6, IL-10, protein carbonyls, soreness, pain, circumference, and ROM showing small negative responses and rapid recovery for the pGz condition.

Conclusion:

Our results demonstrate that pGz can be an effective tool for the reduction of EIMD and may contribute to the training-adaptation cycle by speeding up the recovery of the body due to its performance-loss-lessening effect.

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Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett and Matthew Barnes

This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately postexercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg predamage, 36 hr post, and 60 hr post damage. Venous blood creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle soreness ratings were taken before damage and once per day to 60 hr post damage. Significant differences were observed between the exercised and control leg for maximal concentric, and eccentric torque and isometric tension (p < .05). A near significant Treatment × Time interaction was observed for isometric tension (p = .077), but not for concentric or eccentric torque. No main effects of treatment (alcohol) or interactions with Time × Leg or Leg × Treatment were observed. Perceived muscle soreness during box stepping and squatting showed significant time effects (p < .05), and CK activity did not significantly change. Our results indicate that the consumption of 0.88g ethanol/kg body weight following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage does not affect recovery in the days following damage in females.

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François Bieuzen, Jeanick Brisswalter, Christopher Easthope, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Thierry Bernard and Christophe Hausswirth

Background:

Compression garments are increasingly popular in long-distance running events where they are used to limit cumulative fatigue and symptoms associated with mild exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). However, the effective benefits remain unclear.

Objective:

This study examined the effect of wearing compression stockings (CS) on EIMD indicators. Compression was applied during or after simulated trail races performed at competition pace in experienced off-road runners.

Methods:

Eleven highly trained male runners participated in 3 simulated trail races (15.6 km: uphill section 6.6 km, average gradient 13%, and downhill section 9.0 km, average gradient –9%) in a randomized crossover trial. The effect of wearing CS while running or during recovery was tested and compared with a control condition (ie, run and recovery without CS; non- CS). Indicators of muscle function, muscle damage (creatine kinase; CK), inflammation (interleukin-6; IL-6), and perceived muscle soreness were recorded at baseline (1 h before warm-up) and 1, 24, and 48 h after the run.

Results:

Perceived muscle soreness was likely to be lower when participants wore CS during trail running compared with the control condition (1 h postrun, 82% chance; 24 h postrun, 80% chance). A likely or possibly beneficial effect of wearing CS during running was also found for isometric peak torque at 1 h postrun (70% chance) and 24 h postrun (60% chance) and throughout the recovery period on countermovement jump, compared with non-CS. Possible, trivial, or unclear differences were observed for CK and IL-6 between all conditions.

Conclusion:

Wearing CS during simulated trail races mainly affects perceived leg soreness and muscle function. These benefits are visible very shortly after the start of the recovery period.

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Ken A. van Someren, Adam J. Edwards and Glyn Howatson

This study examined the effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) supplementation on signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise. Six non-resistance trained male subjects performed an exercise protocol designed to induce muscle damage on two separate occasions, performed on the dominant or non-dominant arm in a counter-balanced crossover design. Subjects were assigned to an HMB/KIC (3 g HMB and 0.3 g α-ketoisocaproic acid, daily) or placebo treatment for 14 d prior to exercise in the counter-balanced crossover design. One repetition maximum (1RM), plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girth, and range of motion (ROM) were determined pre-exercise, at 1h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-exercise. DOMS and the percentage changes in 1RM, limb girth, and ROM all changed over the 72 h period (P < 0.05). HMB/KIC supplementation attenuated the CK response, the percentage decrement in 1RM, and the percentage increase in limb girth (P < 0.05). In addition, DOMS was reduced at 24 h post-exercise (P < 0.05) in the HMB/KIC treatment. In conclusion, 14 d of HMB and KIC supplementation reduced signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in non-resistance trained males following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise.

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Reijo Bottas, Kari Miettunen, Paavo Komi and Vesa Linnamo

The aim was to examine the acute and delayed effects of exercise-induced muscle damage and soreness on elbow target movements (TM) performance and control. Ten males performed an exercise of 50 maximal eccentric elbow actions. TMs were performed at three movement ranges. Maximal forces, active stretch reflex and TM were tested, and muscle soreness, creatine kinase and elbow joint stiffness were determined acute (after and 2 h) and delayed (2, 4, 6, 8d) postexercise. Both the long lasting muscle soreness and force drop were observed after the exercise. Joint stiffness was increased at 2 h postexercise. The highest deterioration in flexion-TM performance was found at the time (2 h) and at the elbow angles (most flexed) where force drop was the greatest. The increased TM time was concomitant with the flexors changed timing, decreased peak EMG, and with their reduced stretch reflex amplitude. However, the effects on triphasic EMG activity pattern of TM were not joint angle specific. Dysfunction of fastest motor units and the sensitization of small group III / IV muscle afferents might have been responsible for the amplitude modulations of the activity pattern.

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José M.C. Soares, Paulo Mota, José A. Duarte and Hans J. Appell

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether children showed similar signs of muscle overuse like adults after intense exercise. One child group (n = 10) and one adult group (n = 10) of males both had to perform five series of bench press exercises at an intensity of 80% of maximum strength until exhaustion. Maximum isometric strength, subjective perception of muscle pain, was measured before, immediately after, 48 hr, 72 hr, and 1 week after the exercise. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured before, 48 hr, 72 hr, and 1 week after the exercise. The adults showed all symptoms of muscle overuse: reduced strength, muscle pain, and elevated CK activities until 3 days after the exercise. In contrast, the children experienced only some light muscle pain, but neither showed reduced strength nor elevated CK activities. It is concluded that children’s muscles can easier withstand physical stress than adult muscles.