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Lauren C. Benson and Kristian M. O’Connor

About half of all runners sustain a running-related injury every year. Exertion may contribute to risk of injury by altering joint mechanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exertion on runners’ joint mechanics using principal component analysis (PCA). Three-dimensional motion analysis of the lower extremity was performed on 16 healthy female runners before and after their typical training run. PCA was used to determine exertion-related changes in joint mechanics at the ankle, knee, and hip. Statistical significance for repeated-measures MANOVA of the retained principal components at each joint and plane of motion was at P < .05. Exercise effects were identified at the ankle (greater rate of eversion [PC2: P = .027], and decreased plantar flexion moment [overall: P = .044] and external rotation moment [PC3: P = .003]), knee (increased adduction [overall: P = .044] and internal rotation [PC3: P = .034], and decreased abduction moment [overall: P = .045]), and hip (increased internal rotation [PC1: P = .013] and range of mid- to late-stance rotation [PC2: P = .009], and decreased internal rotation moment [PC1: P = .001]). The observed changes in running mechanics reflect a gait profile that is often linked to running injury. The effects of more strenuous activity may result in mechanics that present an even greater risk for injury.

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Luis Peñailillo, Karen Mackay and Chris R. Abbiss

Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is one of the most utilized measurements in exercise and sports science settings. Exercise-induced increases in psychophysiological stress are extremely important in many aspects of exercise capacity and performance including the development and perceptions of

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Mohamed Saifeddin Fessi and Wassim Moalla

rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a common simple, valid, reliable, and low-cost method that represents the athlete’s own perception of training stress and gives a complete indication of the global workload because it is indicative of both physiological and psychological load. 8 , 14 Accordingly

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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Michael N. Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E. Neves, Charles H. Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi and Akiva Leibowitz

failure in the setting of hemodynamic instability and multipressor shock. Empiric antibiotics and hydrocortisone were administered. The patient was diagnosed with severe exertional rhabdomyolysis with pigment-induced renal failure likely related to profound volume depletion. Despite the maximal supportive

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Kelley D. Henderson, Sarah A. Manspeaker and Zevon Stubblefield

Key Points ▸ Diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis includes a combined exam and laboratory findings. ▸ Exertional rhabdomyolysis during in-season tennis competition is rare. ▸ Return to activity following exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur swiftly OR in the middle of sport season if a progressive

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Robert G. McMurray and Susan K. Veazey

The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of two submaximal exercise tests, the Sitting-Chair Step Test (Smith & Gilligan. 1983) and the Modified Step Test (Amundsen, DeVahl, & Ellingham, 1989) to predict peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in 28 adults ages 60 to 85 years. VO2 peak was measured by indirect calorimetry during a treadmill maximal graded exercise test (VO2 peak, range 11.6–31.1 ml · kg −l · min−1). In each of the submaximal tests, VO2 was predicted by plotting stage-by-stage submaximal heart rate (HR) and perceived exertion (RPE) data against VO2 for each stage and extrapolating the data to respective age-predicted maximal HR or RPE values. In the Sitting-Chair Step Test (n = 23), no significant differences were observed between measured and predicted VO2 peak values (p > .05). However, predicted VO2 peak values from the HR were 4.3 ml · kg−1 · min−1 higher than VO2 peak values predicted from the RPE data (p < .05). In the Modified Step Test (n = 22), no significant differences were observed between measured and predicted VO2 peak values (p > .05). Predictive accuracy was modest, explaining 49–78% of the variance in VO2 peak. These data suggest that the Sitting-Chair Step Test and the Modified Step Test have moderate validity in predicting VO2 peak in older men and women.

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Paolo T. Pianosi

( 58 ) nor should one expect them to, since they have not experienced years of evolving pathology that characterize chronic obstructive lung disease or congestive heart failure. Indeed, we found no differences in ratings of exertional dyspnea among children and adolescents with asthma, cystic fibrosis

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Riana R. Pryor, Douglas J. Casa, Susan W. Yeargin and Zachary Y. Kerr

school football athletes are treated for exertional heat illness (EHI) on the athletic field and in emergency rooms each year. 1 Football athletes develop EHI at a rate 4–11 times higher than other high school sports, with 14.7 EHI per 100,000 athlete exposures during preseason practices. 2 – 4 Due to

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Timothy M. Wohlfert and Kevin C. Miller

Focused Clinical Question Does precooling (PC) with whole-body cold water immersion (CWI) affect thermal sensation (TS) or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise in the heat? Summary of Search, “Best Evidence” Appraised, and Key Findings • We searched for studies that compared subjects

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Blaine E. Arney, Reese Glover, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Jos J. de Koning, Teun van Erp, Salvador Jaime, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari and Carl Foster

to quantify internal TL using a modification of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method developed by Borg. 6 This method is known as the session RPE (sRPE). The sRPE is derived by multiplying the overall RPE obtained at the end of a training session, using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale