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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira

of the rest duration. Immediately after the mouth rinse, subjects commenced their run to exhaustion test on the treadmill at velocity equivalent to 100% of individual’s VO 2 max. Every 30 seconds during the test, individuals were questioned about their ratings of perceived effort (using the Borg

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

Purpose: To investigate single-day time-to-exhaustion (TTE) and time-trial (TT) -based laboratory tests values of critical power (CP), W prime (W′), and respective oxygen-uptake-kinetic responses. Methods: Twelve cyclists performed a maximal ramp test followed by 3 TTE and 3 TT efforts interspersed by 60 min recovery between efforts. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2) was measured during all trials. The mean response time was calculated as a description of the overall V˙O2-kinetic response from the onset to 2 min of exercise. Results: TTE-determined CP was 279 ± 52 W, and TT-determined CP was 276 ± 50 W (P = .237). Values of W′ were 14.3 ± 3.4 kJ (TTE W′) and 16.5 ± 4.2 kJ (TT W′) (P = .028). While a high level of agreement (−12 to 17 W) and a low prediction error of 2.7% were established for CP, for W′ limits of agreements were markedly lower (−8 to 3.7 kJ), with a prediction error of 18.8%. The mean standard error for TTE CP values was significantly higher than that for TT CP values (2.4% ± 1.9% vs 1.2% ± 0.7% W). The standard errors for TTE W′ and TT W′ were 11.2% ± 8.1% and 5.6% ± 3.6%, respectively. The V˙O2 response was significantly faster during TT (~22 s) than TTE (~28 s). Conclusions: The TT protocol with a 60-min recovery period offers a valid, time-saving, and less error-filled alternative to conventional and more recent testing methods. Results, however, cannot be transferred to W′.

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Fábio J. Lanferdini, Rodrigo R. Bini, Bruno M. Baroni, Kelli D. Klein, Felipe P. Carpes and Marco A. Vaz

of this study was to investigate the effects of 4 different LLLT dosages on performance during a time-to-exhaustion test in competitive cyclists. The second objective of the study was to investigate the effects of LLLT on EMG spectral properties (overall, high and low frequencies) during the

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Maurizio Bertollo, Selenia di Fronso, Edson Filho, Vito Lamberti, Patrizio Ripari, Victor Machado Reis, Silvia Comani, Laura Bortoli and Claudio Robazza

We conducted a counterbalanced repeated measure trial to investigate the effect of different internal and external associative strategies on endurance performance. Seventeen college-aged students were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions to test the notion that different attention-performance types (optimal Type 1, functional Type 2, and dysfunctional Type 3) would influence endurance time on a cycling task. Specifically, Type 1 represented an effortless and automatic, “flow-feeling” attentional mode. Type 2 referred to an associative focus directed at core components of the task. Type 3 represented an attentional focus directed at irrelevant components of the task. Participants completed three time-to-exhaustion-tests while reporting their perceived exertion and affective states (arousal and hedonic tone). Results revealed that Type 1 and Type 2 attentional strategies, compared with Type 3 strategy, exerted functional effects on performance, whereas a Type 3 strategy was linked to lower performance, and lower levels of arousal and pleasantness. Applied implications are discussed.

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Sam S.X. Wu, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, Peter Peeling, Jeanick Brisswalter, Wing Y. Lau, Kazunori Nosaka and Chris R. Abbiss

Purpose:

To investigate the effect of 3 swim-pacing profiles on subsequent performance during a sprint-distance triathlon (SDT).

Methods:

Nine competitive/trained male triathletes completed 5 experimental sessions including a graded running exhaustion test, a 750-m swim time trial (STT), and 3 SDTs. The swim times of the 3 SDTs were matched, but pacing was manipulated to induce positive (ie, speed gradually decreasing from 92% to 73% STT), negative (ie, speed gradually increasing from 73% to 92% STT), or even pacing (constant 82.5% STT). The remaining disciplines were completed at a self-selected maximal pace. Speed over the entire triathlon, power output during the cycle discipline, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for each discipline, and heart rate during the cycle and run were determined.

Results:

Faster cycle and overall triathlon times were achieved with positive swim pacing (30.5 ± 1.8 and 65.9 ± 4.0 min, respectively), as compared with the even (31.4 ± 1.0 min, P = .018 and 67.7 ± 3.9 min, P = .034, effect size [ES] = 0.46, respectively) and negative (31.8 ± 1.6 min, P = .011 and 67.3 ± 3.7 min, P = .041, ES = 0.36, respectively) pacing. Positive swim pacing elicited a lower RPE (9 ± 2) than negative swim pacing (11 ± 2, P = .014). No differences were observed in the other measured variables.

Conclusions:

A positive swim pacing may improve overall SDT performance and should be considered by both elite and age-group athletes during racing.

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Matthew W. Hoon, Nathan A. Johnson, Phillip G. Chapman and Louise M. Burke

The purpose of this review was to examine the effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance by systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled human studies. A search of four electronic databases and cross-referencing found 17 studies investigating the effect of inorganic nitrate supplementation on exercise performance that met the inclusion criteria. Beetroot juice and sodium nitrate were the most common supplements, with doses ranging from 300 to 600 mg nitrate and prescribed in a manner ranging from a single bolus to 15 days of regular ingestion. Pooled analysis showed a significant moderate benefit (ES = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.23–1.35) of nitrate supplementation on performance for time to exhaustion tests (p = .006). There was a small but insignificant beneficial effect on performance for time trials (ES = 0.11, 95% CI: –0.16–0.37) and graded exercise tests (ES = 0.26, 95% CI: –0.10–0.62). Qualitative analysis suggested that performance benefits are more often observed in inactive to recreationally active individuals and when a chronic loading of nitrate over several days is undertaken. Overall, these results suggest that nitrate supplementation is associated with a moderate improvement in constant load time to exhaustion tasks. Despite not reaching statistical significance, the small positive effect on time trial or graded exercise performance may be meaningful in an elite sport context. More data are required to clarify the effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance and to elucidate the optimal way to implement supplementation.

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* Grant M. Duthie * Ben J. Dascombe * 13 2 176 182 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0119 ijspp.2017-0119 Time Trials Versus Time-to-Exhaustion Tests: Effects on Critical Power, W′, and Oxygen-Uptake Kinetics Bettina Karsten * Jonathan Baker * Fernando Naclerio * Andreas Klose * Antonino Bianco * Alfred

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

) . Figure 1 —Schematic description of the experimental design. RPE = rating of perceived exertion; HR = heart rate; GIS = gastrointestinal symptoms; CES-HGel = carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with sodium alginate and pectin for hydrogel; CES-Std = standard CES; TTE = time to exhaustion test. Breath

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Mehdi Kordi, Campbell Menzies and Andy Galbraith

16. Karsten B , Baker J , Naclerio F , Klose A , Bianco A , Nimmerichter A . Time trials versus time-to-exhaustion tests: effects on critical power, W′, and oxygen-uptake kinetics . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2018 ; 13 ( 2 ): 183 – 188 . PubMed ID: 28530476 doi:10.1123/ijspp

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

test, there was a “(very) likely trivial effect” of BR versus PLA, thus supporting a potential benefit of BR only for the dynamic apnea test. Exhaustion testing like the dynamic apnea test is much more sensitive to changes than sport-specific performance testing like the intermittent test ( Hopkins et