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Ye Hoon Lee, Hyungil Harry Kwon, and K. Andrew R. Richards

exhaustion, and job satisfaction among high school PE teachers. We ground our work in appraisals of emotion theory and develop a research-based conceptual model that is tested through structural equation modeling (SEM). Appraisal Theory of Emotion Appraisals of emotion theory explain why it is possible for

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco, and Alfred Nimmerichter

2 slow component. 2 This provides an intrinsic link between loss of muscle efficiency and development of fatigue. 2 , 3 In addition to a maximal ramp test, the conventional CP assessment requires athletes on repeated occasions to perform time-to-exhaustion (TTE) trials, commonly applied after a 24

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland, and Justin A. Haegele

), resilience, perceived mattering, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in APE teachers. We developed and tested a conceptual framework grounded in role socialization theory ( Richards, 2015 ), using structural equation modeling (SEM). Role Socialization Theory Role socialization theory is a

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Lawrence E. Armstrong and Rebecca M. Lopez

Context:

Exertional heat exhaustion (HEX) is the most common form of heat illness experienced by athletes, laborers, and military personnel. Both dehydration stemming from a water and/or salt deficiency and a high ambient temperature must exist for HEX to occur. In the field, appropriate therapy can reduce recovery time.

Objective:

This manuscript provides clinical guidance regarding return to activity. The primary focus of this paper is to describe the evaluation of residual effects and the underlying personal characteristics that initially predispose the athlete to HEX. Attention to these factors will reduce the risk of future episodes.

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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga, and Erick P. de Oliveira

during high-intensity exercises, and further studies are necessary. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of CHO mouth rinse on time to exhaustion in a short duration and high-intensity exercise protocol performed on a treadmill. Methods Subjects Ten young recreationally active male

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Marcelo Luis Marquezi, Hamilton Augusto Roschel, André dos Santos Costa, Letícia Aiko Sawada, and Antonio Herbert Lancha Jr.

Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of aspartate (ASP) and asparagine (ASG) supplementation on fatigue determinants in Wistar rats exercised to exhaustion by swimming. Methods: The animals were tested for anaerobic threshold (AT) determination and then supplemented with 350 mM ASP + 400 mM ASG · day−1 (AA group, n = 16) or 2 ml · day−1 of distillated water (PLC group, n = 16) for 7 days. On the 7th day of supplementation, the animals were divided into 4 new groups and killed at rest (RAA, n = 8; RPLC, n = 8), or immediately after the swimming exercise to exhaustion (EAA, n = 8; EPLC, n = 8). Results: No significant differences were observed between amino acids and placebo rest groups for muscle and liver glycogen, blood glucose, lactate, ala-nine, and glutamine concentrations. However, in the exhaustion groups, the EAA group showed higher exercise time (68.37+ 25.42 X 41.12 + 13.82 min, p < .05) and lower blood lactate concentration (8.57 ± 1.92 X 11.28 + 2.61 mmol · L−1, p < .05) than the EPLC group. Moreover, the ASP+ASG supplementation decreased the rate of glycogen degradation of gastrocnemius (1.00 + 0.51 X 3.43 ± 0.99 μg · 100 mg of tissue sample−1 · min−1), extensor digitorius longus (5.70 ± 2.35 X 8.11 ± 3.97 μg · 100 mg of tissue sample−1 min−1) and liver (0.51 ± 0.34 X 3.37 ± 2.31 μg · 100 mg of tissue sample−1 min−1) for EAA. Conclusion: These results suggest that ASP+ASG supplementation may increase the contribution of oxidative metabolism in energy production and delay fatigue during exercise performed above the AT.

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Bart Van Gheluwe and Claire Madsen

Excessive rearfoot motion, especially in the frontal plane, is believed to be a major cause of overload injuries in running. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of fatigue on frontal rearfoot motion just before volitional abandonment during an exhaustive run on a treadmill. Rearfoot kinematics were recorded three-dimensionally and reconstructed in a frontal plane associated with the heel. Statistical analysis of the results suggested that exhaustion did not influence tibial varum substantially, except at first heel strike. However, maximal calcaneal eversion and subtalar pronation did increase significantly, while maximal pronation velocity accelerated to 100°/s more than at the start of the exhaustive run. Also, the results of this study suggest that the increase in rearfoot motion is directly affected by fatigue and not by a fatigue-induced increase in step length.

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Isaiah Trice and Emily M. Haymes

In this study a double-blind design was used to determine the effect of caffeine on time to exhaustion and on associated metabolic and circulatory measures. Eight male subjects ingested either caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo 1 hr prior to exercise at 85-90% of maximum workload. Subjects were encouraged to complete three 30-min intermittent cycling periods at 70 rpm with 5 min rest between each. The exercise was terminated when the subject failed to complete three 30-min periods or failed to maintain 70 rpm for at least 15 s consecutively. Serum free fatty acids, glycerol, blood glucose, lactate, perceived exertion, heart rate, and O2 cost were measured. The time to exhaustion was significantly longer during the caffeine trial than during the placebo trial. Serum free fatty acid levels were significantly different between trials. The decline in blood glucose levels was significantly less during the caffeine trial than during the placebo trial. There were no significant differences between trials for the other measures. It was concluded that caffeine increases time to exhaustion when trained subjects cycled intermittently at high levels of intensity.

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Lynn Van den Berghe, Greet Cardon, Nathalie Aelterman, Isabel Barbara Tallir, Maarten Vansteenkiste, and Leen Haerens

Burnout in teachers is related to different maladaptive outcomes. This study aimed at exploring the relationship between emotional exhaustion and motivation to teach in 93 physical education teachers. Results showed that teachers report more emotional exhaustion when they are less autonomously motivated, while the opposite relationship was found for controlled motivation. Next, four motivational profiles were identified by means of cluster analyses: (a) a relative controlled group, (b) a relative lowly motivated group, (c) a relative autonomous group, and (d) a relative highly motivated group. The controlled group reported most emotional exhaustion, whereas the relative autonomous and highly motivated group had the lowest scores on emotional exhaustion. The results indicate that being autonomously motivated may function as a “buffer” against the development of emotional exhaustion. This implicates that it is important for politicians, directors, teachers, and teacher educators to consider teachers’ type of motivation to teach to prevent emotional exhaustion.

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Erik Lundkvist, Henrik Gustafsson, Paul Davis, and Peter Hassmén

The aims of this study were to (a) examine the associations between workaholism and work-related exhaustion and (b) examine associations between work–home/ home–work interference and work-related exhaustion in 261 Swedish coaches. Quantile regression showed that workaholism is only associated with exhaustion for coaches who score high on exhaustion, that negative work–home interference has a stronger association with exhaustion than negative home–work interference, and that the coaches on a mean level scored low on all measured constructs. In addition, coaches in the higher percentiles have a higher risk for burnout. Our results highlight the importance of studying coach exhaustion with respect to aspects that extend beyond the sports life.