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Ye Hoon Lee, Hyungil Harry Kwon and K. Andrew R. Richards

exhaustion, and job satisfaction among high school PE teachers. We ground our work in appraisals of emotion theory and develop a research-based conceptual model that is tested through structural equation modeling (SEM). Appraisal Theory of Emotion Appraisals of emotion theory explain why it is possible for

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

2 slow component. 2 This provides an intrinsic link between loss of muscle efficiency and development of fatigue. 2 , 3 In addition to a maximal ramp test, the conventional CP assessment requires athletes on repeated occasions to perform time-to-exhaustion (TTE) trials, commonly applied after a 24

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Lawrence E. Armstrong and Rebecca M. Lopez


Exertional heat exhaustion (HEX) is the most common form of heat illness experienced by athletes, laborers, and military personnel. Both dehydration stemming from a water and/or salt deficiency and a high ambient temperature must exist for HEX to occur. In the field, appropriate therapy can reduce recovery time.


This manuscript provides clinical guidance regarding return to activity. The primary focus of this paper is to describe the evaluation of residual effects and the underlying personal characteristics that initially predispose the athlete to HEX. Attention to these factors will reduce the risk of future episodes.

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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira

during high-intensity exercises, and further studies are necessary. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of CHO mouth rinse on time to exhaustion in a short duration and high-intensity exercise protocol performed on a treadmill. Methods Subjects Ten young recreationally active male

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Bart Van Gheluwe and Claire Madsen

Excessive rearfoot motion, especially in the frontal plane, is believed to be a major cause of overload injuries in running. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of fatigue on frontal rearfoot motion just before volitional abandonment during an exhaustive run on a treadmill. Rearfoot kinematics were recorded three-dimensionally and reconstructed in a frontal plane associated with the heel. Statistical analysis of the results suggested that exhaustion did not influence tibial varum substantially, except at first heel strike. However, maximal calcaneal eversion and subtalar pronation did increase significantly, while maximal pronation velocity accelerated to 100°/s more than at the start of the exhaustive run. Also, the results of this study suggest that the increase in rearfoot motion is directly affected by fatigue and not by a fatigue-induced increase in step length.

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Marcelo Luis Marquezi, Hamilton Augusto Roschel, André dos Santos Costa, Letícia Aiko Sawada and Antonio Herbert Lancha Jr.

Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of aspartate (ASP) and asparagine (ASG) supplementation on fatigue determinants in Wistar rats exercised to exhaustion by swimming. Methods: The animals were tested for anaerobic threshold (AT) determination and then supplemented with 350 mM ASP + 400 mM ASG · day−1 (AA group, n = 16) or 2 ml · day−1 of distillated water (PLC group, n = 16) for 7 days. On the 7th day of supplementation, the animals were divided into 4 new groups and killed at rest (RAA, n = 8; RPLC, n = 8), or immediately after the swimming exercise to exhaustion (EAA, n = 8; EPLC, n = 8). Results: No significant differences were observed between amino acids and placebo rest groups for muscle and liver glycogen, blood glucose, lactate, ala-nine, and glutamine concentrations. However, in the exhaustion groups, the EAA group showed higher exercise time (68.37+ 25.42 X 41.12 + 13.82 min, p < .05) and lower blood lactate concentration (8.57 ± 1.92 X 11.28 + 2.61 mmol · L−1, p < .05) than the EPLC group. Moreover, the ASP+ASG supplementation decreased the rate of glycogen degradation of gastrocnemius (1.00 + 0.51 X 3.43 ± 0.99 μg · 100 mg of tissue sample−1 · min−1), extensor digitorius longus (5.70 ± 2.35 X 8.11 ± 3.97 μg · 100 mg of tissue sample−1 min−1) and liver (0.51 ± 0.34 X 3.37 ± 2.31 μg · 100 mg of tissue sample−1 min−1) for EAA. Conclusion: These results suggest that ASP+ASG supplementation may increase the contribution of oxidative metabolism in energy production and delay fatigue during exercise performed above the AT.

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Erik Lundkvist, Henrik Gustafsson, Paul Davis and Peter Hassmén

The aims of this study were to (a) examine the associations between workaholism and work-related exhaustion and (b) examine associations between work–home/ home–work interference and work-related exhaustion in 261 Swedish coaches. Quantile regression showed that workaholism is only associated with exhaustion for coaches who score high on exhaustion, that negative work–home interference has a stronger association with exhaustion than negative home–work interference, and that the coaches on a mean level scored low on all measured constructs. In addition, coaches in the higher percentiles have a higher risk for burnout. Our results highlight the importance of studying coach exhaustion with respect to aspects that extend beyond the sports life.

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Lynn Van den Berghe, Greet Cardon, Nathalie Aelterman, Isabel Barbara Tallir, Maarten Vansteenkiste and Leen Haerens

Burnout in teachers is related to different maladaptive outcomes. This study aimed at exploring the relationship between emotional exhaustion and motivation to teach in 93 physical education teachers. Results showed that teachers report more emotional exhaustion when they are less autonomously motivated, while the opposite relationship was found for controlled motivation. Next, four motivational profiles were identified by means of cluster analyses: (a) a relative controlled group, (b) a relative lowly motivated group, (c) a relative autonomous group, and (d) a relative highly motivated group. The controlled group reported most emotional exhaustion, whereas the relative autonomous and highly motivated group had the lowest scores on emotional exhaustion. The results indicate that being autonomously motivated may function as a “buffer” against the development of emotional exhaustion. This implicates that it is important for politicians, directors, teachers, and teacher educators to consider teachers’ type of motivation to teach to prevent emotional exhaustion.

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Ian P. Snider, Terry L. Bazzarre, Scott D. Murdoch and Allan Goldfarb

This study examined the effects of the Coenzyme Athletic Performance System (CAPS) on endurance performance to exhaustion. CAPS contains 100 mg coenzyme Q10,500 mg cytochrome C, 100 mg inosine, and 200 IU vitamin E. Eleven highly trained male triathletes were given three daily doses of either CAPS or placebo (dicalcium phosphate) for two 4-week periods using a double-blind crossover design. A 4-week washout period separated the two treatment periods. An exhaustive performance test, consisting of 90 minutes of running on a treadmill (70% VO2max) followed by cycling (70% VO2max) until exhaustion, was conducted after each treatment period. The mean (±SEM) time to exhaustion for the subjects using CAPS (223 ±17 min) was not significantly different (p=0.57) from the placebo trial (215 ±9 min). Blood glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid concentrations at exhaustion did not differ between treatments (p < 0.05). CAPS had no apparent benefit on exercise to exhaustion.

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Jordan P.R. McIntyre, Grant A. Mawston and Simeon P. Cairns


To quantify how whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures change during prolonged cycling and recovery and determine whether there are relationships between the different fatigue measures.


Ten competitive or recreationally active male cyclists underwent repeated 20-min stages of prolonged cycling at 70% VO2peak until exhaustion. Whole-body peak power output (PPO) was assessed using an all-out 30-s sprint 17 min into each cycle stage. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout. Isometric and isokinetic muscle-function tests were made between cycle stages, over ~6 min, and during 30-min recovery. Drop-jump measures were tested at exhaustion and during recovery.


PPO initially increased or was maintained in some subjects but fell to 81% of maximum at exhaustion. RPE was near maximal (18.7) at exhaustion, with the time to exhaustion related to the rate of rise of RPE. PPO first started to decline only when RPE exceeded 16 (ie, hard). Peak isometric and concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) for the quadriceps fell to 86% and 83% of pretest at exhaustion, respectively. In contrast, the peak concentric isokinetic torque (180°/s) of the hamstrings increased by 10% before declining to 93% of maximum. Jump height fell to 92% of pretest at exhaustion and was correlated with the decline in PPO (r = .79). Muscle-function and jump-performance measures did not recover over the 30-min postexercise rest period.


At exhaustion, whole-body power, muscle-function, and jump-performance measures had all fallen by 7–19%. PPO and drop-jump decrements were linearly correlated and are appropriate measures of maximal performance.