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E. Jane Watkinson, Sean A. Dwyer, and A. Brian Nielsen

Inclusion in activity at recess can have important implications for the health and for the physical, social, and cognitive development of children, according to play theorists (Pellegrini, 1995). This study examined whether children described their decisions (and those of fictitious others) to engage in recess activities in achievement terms consistent with expectancy-value theory (Eccles, Wigfield & Schiefele, 1998). Ten Grade 3 children with different patterns of recess engagement did confirm that attainment, interest, utility, and cost values were salient to decisions to participate. Children distinguished among value components, and confirmed that expectancies and values contributed to activity choices, providing support for the conceptualization of recess as an achievement setting in which expectancy-value theory applies.

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T.N. Kirk, Justin A. Haegele, and Xihe Zhu

, is expectancy-value theory. Expectancy-Value Theory of Motivation Expectancy-value theory was developed in the field of educational psychology beginning in 1983 and has been continually employed across different motivational contexts since then ( Eccles et al., 1983 ; Eccles & Wigfield, 2002

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Tim Fletcher, Ken Lodewyk, Katie Glover, and Sandra Albione

by the authorities who govern the conditions of reform. Expectancy-Value Theory In order to examine the experiences of participants who were learning to become instructional coaches in H&PE, we framed the study using expectancy-value theory ( Wigfield & Eccles, 2000 ). Expectancy-value theory

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Andrew Romaine, J.D. DeFreese, Kevin Guskiewicz, and Johna Register-Mihalik

As head injuries in American football have received increasing publicity, the safety of the sport has become a great concern for parents nationwide. The purpose of this study was to examine perceived safety concerns in youth football using Eccles’ expectancy-value model (Eccles et al., 1983). We hypothesized perceived safety concerns to moderate relationships between parent perceptions of parent cost/benefit, child cost/benefit, and child motivation and enjoyment outcomes for football. Youth football parents (N = 105, Mage = 42) completed valid and reliable online assessments of study variables. Regression analyses revealed child safety concerns (as rated by parents) to mediate, rather than moderate, the relationship between parent safety concerns and child cost perceptions (as rated by parents). Furthermore, safety concerns did not significantly associate with child achievement outcomes of motivation and enjoyment. Results provide valuable insight into parent and child attitudes toward youth football safety. Such knowledge may inform future educational interventions targeting sport safety promotion.

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Ang Chen and Xinlan Liu


The expectancy-value theory postulates that motivation relies on individuals’ beliefs of success, perceived Attainment, Intrinsic Interest, and Utility values and Cost. This study examined Chinese college students’ expectancy-value motivation in relation to physical education and self-initiated physical activity.


A random sample of 368 Chinese university students responded to questionnaires on perceived expectancy beliefs, perceived values, and cost in terms of their experiences in mandatory physical education programs and in self-initiated after-school physical activity. They reported their choice decisions for continuing physical education. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ 2, logistic and linear regressions.


The physical education curriculum was perceived as a major cost to motivation. Motivated by the Intrinsic Interest and Utility value, most students chose to continue to take physical education. Self-initiated after-school physical activity was motivated by the Attainment value only. No association was found between self-initiated physical activity and Liking or Disliking of physical education.


Motivation for physical education and for self-initiated physical activity derived from different perceived values. The Attainment value motivates the students for self-initiated physical activity, whereas Intrinsic Interest and Utility values motivate them to choose to continue physical education.

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Maureen R. Weiss

( Nicholls, 1984 ), self-determination theory ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 ), and expectancy-value theory ( Eccles et al., 1983 ). Each theory highlights the competence, social, and enjoyment reasons for participation captured in early descriptive studies. They have been constructive for studying youth sport

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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, Jeffrey J. Milroy, and Christine M. Baugh

call into question the utility of expectancy-value theories in explaining concussion reporting behavior. Existing approaches to concussion education are built on the premise that individuals make rational, deliberative decisions about whether to report a concussion, and that changing knowledge and

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Maureen R. Weiss

), and expectancy-value theory ( Eccles et al., 1983 ). Self-determination theory ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 ) is another social-cognitive framework for understanding predictors of physical activity motivation. Studies based on these theories yield consistent processes and mechanisms of influence explaining

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Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

effort in team as compared with individual work. Rather, it seems that individuals’ effort investment depends on particular moderating variables. Building on seminal previous work by Shepperd (1993) and Karau and Williams (1993), and Expectancy × Value Theory (Tolman, 1932; Vroom, 1964), this paper

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Annette Lohbeck, Andreas Hohmann, Philipp von Keitz, and Monika Daseking

controlled motivation in sports and physical activities than younger children or children with a lower BMI ( Emm-Collison et al. 2020 ; Mokhtari et al., 2017 ). Furthermore, in line with expectancy-value theory ( Eccles & Wigfield, 2020 ), several studies have provided support for a great impact of physical