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Christopher R. Barnhill, W. Andrew Czekanski, and Adam G. Pfleegor

& Sysko, 2012 , 2013 ). Miller and Slocombe ( 2012 ) argued that Millennial students have unrealistic expectations of their educational experience. Crisp et al. ( 2009 ) stated, “students (may) have unrealistic expectations of what will transpire during their time at university; it may … arise because of

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Damien Clement, Jennifer Jordan Hamson-Utley, Cindra Kamphoff, Rebecca Zakrajsek, Sae-Mi Lee, Brian Hemmings, Taru Lintunen, and Scott B. Martin


Athletes enter injury rehabilitation with certain expectations about the recovery process, outcomes, and the professional providing treatment. Their expectations influence the effectiveness of the assistance received and affect the overall rehabilitation process. Expectations may vary depending on numerous factors such as sport experience, gender, sport type, and cultural background. Unfortunately, limited information is available on athletes’ expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation.


To examine possible differences in athletes’ expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation based on their country of residence and type of sport (contact vs noncontact).




Recreational, college, and professional athletes from the US, UK, and Finland were surveyed.


Of the 1209 athletes ranging from 12 to 80 y of age (mean 23.46 ± 7.91), 529 US [80%], 253 UK [86%], and 199 Finnish [82%] athletes provided details of their geographical location and were included in the final analyses.

Main Outcome Measures:

The Expectations About Athletic Training (EAAT) questionnaire was used to determine athletes’ expectations about personal commitment, facilitative conditions, and the expertise of the sports-medicine professional (SMP).


A 3 × 2 MANCOVA revealed significant main effects for country (P = .0001, ηp 2 = .055) and sport type (P = .0001, ηp 2 = .023). Specifically, US athletes were found to have higher expectations of personal commitment and facilitative conditions than their UK and Finnish counterparts. Athletes participating in contact sports had higher expectations of facilitative conditions and the expertise of the SMP than did athletes participating in noncontact sports.


SMPs, especially those in the US, should consider the sport and environment when providing services. In addition, SMPs need to highlight and demonstrate their expertise during the rehabilitation process, especially for those who compete in contact sports.

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Brian P. Soebbing, Pamela Wicker, and Daniel Weimar

Previous research has examined the effect of changes in upper management positions on actual organizational performance; however, the influence of leadership changes on performance expectations has been largely neglected. This gap in the literature is surprising given that failure to meet expectations leads to dismissal. The purpose of the present research is to analyze how coaching changes affect expectations of a sports team’s performance. Betting lines are used as performance expectations because they are unbiased forecasts of game outcomes. This study uses data from 13 seasons of the German Football Bundesliga. Significant positive timelagged effects on performance expectations are evident when examining underlying expected performance. These positive effects are evident 8 weeks after the leadership change, indicating that new leaders are expected to need some time before significant performance improvements are expected to occur.

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Mark A. Robinson

Throughout history, in life and in sport, human progress has often involved doing what was previously thought impossible, from space exploration to running a sub-4-minute mile. If we were able to see the world of tomorrow now—to glimpse the impossible—would it alter our expectations and accelerate

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Jenny L. Toonstra, Dana Howell, Robert A. English, Christian Lattermann, and Carl G. Mattacola

history, lesion characteristics, quality of the repair, postoperative rehabilitation, and psychosocial factors. There is a growing body of literature in total joint arthroplasty that has investigated the role of patient expectations on clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. 6 – 11 Independent of the

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Leanne C. Findlay and Diane M. Ste-Marie

The current study examined whether expectations, assumed to be created by the positive reputation of an athlete, produced a bias in judging at either the encoding or evaluation phase of sport performance appraisal. The short programs of 14 female figure skaters were evaluated by judges to whom the athletes were either known or unknown. Ordinal rankings were found to be higher when skaters were known by the judges as compared to when they were unknown. Furthermore, skaters received significantly higher technical merit marks when known, although artistic marks did not differ. No significant differences were found for the identification of elements or associated deductions, measures which were assumed to be indicative of the encoding phase of judging. These findings suggest that a reputation bias does exist when judging figure skating, and that it is present during the evaluation phase of sport performance appraisal, as reflected by the ordinal and technical merit marks.

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Brian J. Bigdow and John H. Lewko

The effect of selected aspects of sport involvement on children's friendship expectations (FEs) was investigated by having 80 sport-involved children, grouped equally by gender from ages 9 through 12, complete a 40-item Likert questionnaire. The questionnaire contained eight FEs adapted to each of five discrete sport contexts reflecting team-sport involvement, team-sport non-involvement, same-team membership, opposing-team membership, and poorer players. MANOVAs showed that the sport context was the principal effect. Posttesting revealed that the children agreed that team sport and same-team membership promotes friendship relations. They were relatively undecided whether non-involvement, opposite-team membership, or lack of skill interferes with friendship relations, although they agreed that the poorer player has more friendship problems in sport. Age, sex, and FE item interactions were comparatively small. Older children were more tolerant of the effects of opposing-team membership, older girls were more tolerant of lack of skill, and FE contrasts between sport contexts had good construct validity.

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Katie E. Misener, Kathy Babiak, Gareth Jones, and Iain Lindsey

and offer guidance and direction for research in this area. Sport management scholars have highlighted the rising expectations for multisector integration between sport organizations and other partners stemming from numerous pressures including the need to seek innovative ways of mission delivery as

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Benoît Lenzen, Catherine Theunissen, and Marc Cloes

This exploratory study aimed to investigate elements involved in decision making in team handball live situations and to provide coaches and educators with teaching recommendations. The study was positioned within the framework of the situated action paradigm of which two aspects were of particular interest for this project: (a) the relationship between planning and action, and (b) the perception-action coordination. We used qualitative methods that linked (a) video observation of six female elite players’ actions during two championship matches and (b) self-confrontation interviews. Players’ verbalizations reflected that their decision making included the following: (a) perception (visual, auditory, tactile, proprioceptive), (b) knowledge (concepts, teammates and opponents’ characteristics, experience), (c) expectations (opponents and teammates’ intentions), and (d) contextual elements (score, power play, players on the field, match difficulty). Findings were discussed in terms of teaching implications.

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Meredith George and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

to enlist the support of parents for policy changes that are pro-physical education. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the influence of acculturation on parents’ reading of and expectations for physical education. The specific sub-questions that guided the study were (a) How do