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Sophie A. Kay and Lisa R. Grimm

with a prevention orientation would be vigilant not to miss exercise sessions due to fear of the risks associated with a lack of exercise (e.g., protecting against heart and lung disease). People tend to experience one regulatory focus, known as chronic focus , but a particular focus can be

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Duncan Simpson and Lauren P. Elberty

Sudden death by nature is unexpected and unanticipated ( Futterman & Myerburg, 1998 ), often creating feelings of shock and disbelief ( Straub, 2001 ). As people are usually unprepared for such a traumatic experience ( Margola, Facchin, Molgora, & Revenson, 2010 ), they often do not know where to

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Jude Buckley and Linda D. Cameron

Guided by social cognitive theory (SCT), we investigated whether exercise selfregulatory efficacy beliefs can be activated nonconsciously in individuals experienced and inexperienced in exercise self-regulation, and whether these beliefs are automatically associated with exercise self-regulation processes. The study used a 2 (Exercise Self-Regulation Experience Group) × 3 (Prime Condition) between-subjects design in which individuals experienced and inexperienced in exercise self-regulation were randomly assigned to receive subliminal, supraliminal, or no priming of exercise self-regulatory efficacy beliefs. Participants completed hypothetical diary entries, which were assessed for exercise self-regulatory efficacy and self-regulation expressions using content analyses with a SCT coding system and the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) text analysis program. For both exercise self-regulation experience groups, self-efficacy priming led to more expressions of low exercise self-regulatory efficacy and dysfunctional exercise self-regulation strategies compared with the control prime. For participants experienced in exercise self-regulation, supraliminal priming (vs. control priming) led to more expressions of high exercise self-regulatory efficacy and functional exercise self-regulation strategies. For the experienced groups, priming led to automaticity of exercise expressions compared with the control condition. For inexperienced participants in the subliminal prime condition, priming led to automaticity of self-regulatory efficacy beliefs and work-related goals compared with the control condition. Automatic activation of exercise self-regulatory efficacy and exercise self-regulation processes suggests that self-regulation of exercise behavior can occur nonconsciously.

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Liz Sattler and Rebecca Achen

An internship is often considered the culminating experience of students’ academic progress and the link that connects them to their future career in the sport industry. Foster and Dollar ( 2017 ) classified a sport management internship as a full-time work experience to be completed after all

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Beat Knechtle

Ultramarathon running is increasingly popular. An ultramarathon is defined as a running event involving distances longer than the length of a traditional marathon of 42.195 km. In ultramarathon races, ~80% of the finishers are men. Ultramarathoners are typically ~45 y old and achieve their fastest running times between 30 and 49 y for men, and between 30 and 54 y for women. Most probably, ultrarunners start with a marathon before competing in an ultramarathon. In ultramarathoners, the number of previously completed marathons is significantly higher than the number of completed marathons in marathoners. However, recreational marathoners have a faster personal-best marathon time than ultramarathoners. Successful ultramarathoners have 7.6 ± 6.3 y of experience in ultrarunning. Ultramarathoners complete more running kilometers in training than marathoners do, but they run more slowly during training than marathoners. To summarize, ultramarathoners are master runners, have a broad experience in running, and prepare differently for an ultramarathon than marathoners do. However, it is not known what motivates male ultramarathoners and where ultramarathoners mainly originate. Future studies need to investigate the motivation of male ultramarathoners, where the best ultramarathoners originate, and whether they prepare by competing in marathons before entering ultramarathons.

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Yani L. Dickens, Judy Van Raalte and Russell T. Hurlburt

reliability have been developed ( Hardy, Hall, & Hardy, 2005 ), but the ability of questionnaires to provide accounts of actual inner experience has been questioned ( Hurlburt & Heavey, 2015 ), and the correspondence of questionnaire self-talk such as that measured by the Automatic Self-Talk Questionnaire for

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Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor

–student research partnerships have potential extrinsic (eg, acceleration in research productivity 5 – 7 ) and intrinsic (eg, motivation and enjoyment 6 , 8 ) benefits for staff and institutions, this study will focus on the experiences of students in such partnerships. Several frameworks have presented the ways in

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Shannon S.C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan

number of experiences, expressions, and identities that are not classified as cisgender ( Davidson, 2007 ). LGBTQ+ encompasses a range of identities and expressions that span across gender and sexuality. Heterosexuality simultaneously perpetuates and is predicated on the gender binary ( Jackson, 2006

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Erik L. Lachance and Milena M. Parent

Volunteers have been recognized as indispensable resources for the survival and success of sport events ( Bang & Chelladurai, 2009 ). To date, current research on volunteers in sport events has examined the volunteer experience in relation to constructs, which include, but is not limited to

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Stephen Frawley, Daniel Favaloro and Nico Schulenkorf

investigate the state of leadership development within the highly competitive Australian sport industry, with a specific focus on experience-based leadership development. Using a multicase study approach, this research examined the processes currently implemented within three of Australia’s leading