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Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu, and Christopher Ring

antisocial teammate behavior and perceived performance during a basketball game ( Al-Yaaribi et al., 2016 ). The Present Experiment In sum, although researchers have investigated antecedents of prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport (e.g.,  Kavussanu et al., 2015 ; Stanger et al., 2018 ), the potential

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Patrick Ferrucci and Edson C. Tandoc

This study experimentally tested whether White participants (N = 274) applied stereotypes to Black and White professional quarterbacks. Using common stereotypical descriptors established in prior research, this between-subjects experiment found that while the participants did not stereotype White quarterbacks, they did apply the stereotypes of “physically strong” and “naturally gifted” to Black quarterbacks, thus othering, or using race to establish an out group. These results are interpreted through the framework of social-identity theory.

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María J. Oliveros, Pamela Serón, Fernando Lanas, and Shrikant I. Bangdiwala

touristic coastal town. 12 Afterward, many large and small cities, depending on their local governments, widely installed OGs. The southern city of Temuco (urban population approximately 221,375) installed its first OG in 2008. In this manner, a natural experiment arose in Temuco from the installation of

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Christopher D. Pfledderer, Ryan D. Burns, Wonwoo Byun, Russell L. Carson, Gregory J. Welk, and Timothy A. Brusseau

implementing these school-based programs is to try to understand how to maximize the effectiveness of each component. 16 One promising technique that has been used to determine the inclusion of specific intervention components is the stated preference discrete choice experiment (DCE). Stated preference DCEs

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Marianne I. Clark and Holly Thorpe

theoretical concepts into practice in a theory–method experiment on and with women’s moving bodies. A key contributor to new materialisms is feminist scholar and quantum physicist Karen Barad ( 2003 , 2007 ). While Barad has had little take up in the fields of sport sociology and physical cultural studies to

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Nicholas Stanger and Susan H. Backhouse

Moral identity and moral disengagement have been linked with doping likelihood. However, experiments testing the temporal direction of these relationships are absent. The authors conducted one cross-sectional and two experimental studies investigating the conjunctive effects of moral identity and moral disengagement on doping likelihood (or intention). Dispositional moral identity was inversely (marginally), and doping moral disengagement, positively, associated with doping intention (Study 1). Manipulating situations to amplify opportunities for moral disengagement increased doping likelihood via anticipated guilt (Study 2). Moreover, dispositional moral identity (Study 2) and inducing moral identity (Study 3) were linked with lower doping likelihood and attenuated the relationship between doping moral disengagement and doping likelihood. However, the suppressing effect of moral identity on doping likelihood was overridden when opportunities for moral disengagement were amplified. These findings support multifaceted antidoping efforts, which include simultaneously enhancing athlete moral identity and personal responsibility alongside reducing social opportunities for moral disengagement.

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Nicholas Stanger, Maria Kavussanu, David McIntyre, and Christopher Ring

Although the empathy–aggression relationship has been well documented, research has yet to establish whether emotions mediate and gender moderates this relationship in athletes, under conditions of low and high provocation. In this experiment, we assigned team-sport athletes to either a high (n = 40) or a low (n = 40) empathy group, and asked them to compete in a reaction-time task against a (fictitious) opponent, under conditions of low and high provocation. Empathy reduced aggression (i.e., intensity of electrical shock administered to the opponent) at low provocation in men, and at both low and high provocation in women. Guilt mediated the effect of empathy on aggression at low provocation in men; anger did not mediate any effects of empathy on aggression. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory effect of empathy on aggression and the mediating role of guilt are moderated by provocation and gender.

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Robert F. Potter and Justin Robert Keene

An experiment investigates the impact of fan identification on the cognitive and emotional processing of sports-related news media. Two coaches were featured; one conceptualized as negatively valenced the other positively. Participants completed a fan identification scale before stimuli presentation. While watching the press conferences, heart rate, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle activity were recorded as indices of cognitive resource allocation, emotional arousal, and aversive motivation activation respectively. Self-report measures were collected after each stimulus. Results show that highly identified fans process sports-related news content differently than moderate fans, allocating more cognitive resources and exhibiting greater aversive reactions to the negatively valenced coach. Comparisons between the self-report and psychophysiology data suggest that the latter may be less susceptible to social desirability response bias when emotional reaction to sports messages are concerned.

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Amy A. Eyler, Aaron Hipp, Cheryl Ann Valko, Ramya Ramadas, and Marissa Zwald

building was considered as a “natural experiment” and an opportunity for a unique research study. Natural experiments are defined as studies that capitalize on environmental and policy events that alter exposure to certain social, economic, or environmental factors that influence health. 16 Although

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Nenzi Wang and Yen-Hsiu Liu

An efficient global optimization procedure is presented by using Taguchi's design of experiments (TDE) as a means for undertaking biomechanical studies that rely on experimentations. The proposed TDE is a systematic method of fractional factorial designs for conducting experiments with many independent variables. The approach can provide a step-by-step means for predicting the results of a comparative full factorial design only with a small number of tests. In this study a three-level, four-variable heel-toe running model, and a two-level, seven-variable bicycle example were examined to show the capability and robustness of TDE. In the process of the analysis, the orthogonal array and signal-to-noise ratio analysis of TDE were used to set up the trial conditions and analyze the results. It is shown that in the heel-toe running analyses the TDE successfully predicted the optimum sets of variables with 89% fewer trials than the full factorial design. The reduction in number of trials in the bicycle example is 94%. As a result, the use of TDE analysis to replace a full factorial analysis can considerably reduce the number of trials and still provide a useful outcome in many multifactor biomechanical studies.