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Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

This paper presents a brief overview of some of the major issues associated with research design in experimental gerontology. The intention is not to provide a comprehensive and detailed guide to experimental design and research methods. Rather, the paper focuses on a more general discussion of several issues associated with the design, implementation, and interpretation of research in an attempt to illustrate why a rudimentary knowledge of these topics is essential for all researchers and practitioners involved in the study of the aging process. Wherever possible, specific examples from the exercise science and applied health literature are selected in order to illustrate the significance of these factors for our field of expertise.

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Norman O’Reilly

The Playoff Safety Bias occurs when playoff appearances matter more than championships in terms of an individual’s decision-making process when choosing to consume major professional sport from a set of options, referred to as the Sequential Goal Heuristic. This paper (i) demonstrates the potential value of experimental design research in sport management and (ii) provides a consumer-based perspective of playoff structure. Adopting a consumer psychology approach, a 2 (Team performance: good team/bad team) × 3 (Goal: make playoffs every year/ win at least one championship/ maximize number of championships) design was administered via a scenario presented to 152 undergraduate students. The scenario controlled and manipulated the good team/bad team construct by varying the team’s past six season standings. Results revealed that the subjects instructed to maximize the number of playoff appearances had similar estimations of the ideal number of playoff teams, whether fans of a good or bad team. Conversely, of the subjects instructed to either (i) maximize the number of championships won or (ii) maximize the probability of winning at least one championship, fans of good teams over-estimated the optimal number of playoff teams significantly more than fans of bad teams. Implications for future research, practitioner application, and support of similar methods in sport management research are provided.

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Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So, and Bob Heere

recognition, and attitude toward the brand. In addition, the virtual billboards for the two brands featured sport-related visuals (e.g., tennis ball), which only enhanced their congruency (virtual billboards for nonsports-related brands did not feature such visuals). The structure of the experimental design

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Israel Halperin, David B. Pyne, and David T. Martin

Internal validity refers to the degree of control exerted over potential confounding variables to reduce alternative explanations for the effects of various treatments. In exercise and sports-science research and routine testing, internal validity is commonly achieved by controlling variables such as exercise and warm-up protocols, prior training, nutritional intake before testing, ambient temperature, time of testing, hours of sleep, age, and gender. However, a number of other potential confounding variables often do not receive adequate attention in sports physiology and performance research. These confounding variables include instructions on how to perform the test, volume and frequency of verbal encouragement, knowledge of exercise endpoint, number and gender of observers in the room, influence of music played before and during testing, and the effects of mental fatigue on performance. In this review the authors discuss these variables in relation to common testing environments in exercise and sports science and present some recommendations with the goal of reducing possible threats to internal validity.

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William L. Dunlop, Daniel J. Beatty, and Mark R. Beauchamp

This research examined the relative effects of other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in relation to individual performance within a cooperative dyadic setting. Pairs of female participants (M age = 20.08, SD = 1.93) performed three practice trials on a dyadic dance-based videogame. Other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs were then manipulated through the provision of bogus feedback regarding each pair member's coordination abilities. Following the administration of this feedback, pairs performed a final trial on this dance-based task. The results revealed a main effect for other-efficacy, such that participants in the enhanced other-efficacy conditions outperformed those in the inhibited other-efficacy conditions on this task. A main effect for self-efficacy was not observed. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between other-efficacy and self-efficacy. The results of this study suggest that other-efficacy may supersede the effects of self-efficacy in supporting personal performance within cooperative relational contexts.

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Hairui Liu, Wei Wang, Chunhe Zhang, and Peter A. Hastie

nonequivalent control/comparison group experimental design with premeasure and postmeasure, three table tennis skills (forehand drive, attack, and serve) were assessed during PP and SI units. Results indicated that all participants’ skills, whether in PP or SI, improved. In terms of differences between PP and

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Sitong Guo, Andrew C. Billings, and James C. Abdallah

patterns, as all opposing teams might not function in the same manner when determining image change. An experimental design was incorporated to ask self-ascribed fans of LeBron James how they felt about four possible free-agency destinations being discussed at the time ( Badenhausen, 2018b )—including the

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Emily Dane-Staples

activities in two classrooms that teach sport sociology content. Methods Study Design This was a quasi-experimental design that conducted applied research in two different 200-level courses that covered sport sociology concepts: Sport and Society and Gender and Sport. Both classes were taught by the same

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Lambros Stefanou, Niki Tsangaridou, Charalambos Y. Charalambous, and Leonidas Kyriakides

future research. First, although the quasi-experimental design applied in this study is considered to be a rigorous research design, the adoption of an experimental design seems to be the next step. This will allow for making causal inferences in exploring the contribution of PD programs to teacher and

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Cheryl Der Ananian, Renae Smith-Ray, Brad Meacham, Amy Shah, and Susan Hughes

implementation fidelity, participant and instructor satisfaction with the program, and program adaptations needed to enhance the program’s cultural relevancy. Methods Study Design We used a single-group, pre-post quasi-experimental design to examine the effectiveness of the program on lower-extremity strength