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Nicola D. Ridgers, Karen E. Lamb, Anna Timperio, Helen Brown and Jo Salmon

compared with the remaining experimental conditions, which were delivered by research staff. These issues may explain the lack of change observed. Future experimental research should consider standardizing the delivery of the LPA condition in schools to ensure consistency between classes and increasing the

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Jennifer Zink, David A. Berrigan, Miranda M. Broadney, Faizah Shareef, Alexia Papachristopoulou, Sheila M. Brady, Shanna B. Bernstein, Robert J. Brychta, Jacob D. Hattenbach, Ira L. Tigner Jr., Amber B. Courville, Bart E. Drinkard, Kevin P. Smith, Douglas R. Rosing, Pamela L. Wolters, Kong Y. Chen, Jack A. Yanovski and Britni R. Belcher

Purpose: Sedentary time relates to higher anxiety and more negative affect in children. This study assessed whether interrupting sitting over 3 hours is sufficient to influence state anxiety, positive affect, or negative affect, and tested weight status as a moderator. Methods: Analyses were the second (preplanned) purpose of a larger study. Children (N = 61; age: mean [SD] = 9.5 [1.3]; 43% healthy weight) completed 2 experimental conditions: continuous sitting for 3 hours and sitting for 3 hours interrupted with walking for 3 minutes in every 30 minutes. State anxiety, positive affect, and negative affect were reported at pretest and posttest. Multilevel models for repeated measures assessed whether experimental condition predicted posttest scores. Results: Experimental condition was unrelated to posttest state anxiety or positive affect. Weight status moderated how experimental condition influenced posttest negative affect (P = .003). Negative affect was lower in the children of healthy weight after interrupted sitting (vs continuous sitting; β = −0.8; 95% confidence interval, −1.5 to 0.0, P = .05), but it was higher in the children with overweight/obesity after interrupted sitting (vs continuous sitting; β = 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.0 to 1.2, P = .06). Conclusions: Interrupting sitting acutely reduced negative affect in children of healthy weight, but not in children with overweight. Further research is needed to better understand the potential emotional benefits of sitting interruptions in youth.

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Benjamin C. Guinhouya, Mohamed Lemdani, Géoffroy K. Apété, Alain Durocher, Christian Vilhelm and Hervé Hubert

Background:

This study was designed to model the relationship between an ActiGraph-based “in-school” physical activity (PA) and the daily one among children and to quantify how school can contribute to the daily PA recommendations.

Method:

Fifty boys and 43 girls (aged 8 to 11 years) wore ActiGraph for 2 schooldays of no structured PA. The daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPAd) was regressed on the school time MVPA (MVPAs). Then, a ROC analysis was computed to define the required MVPAs.

Results:

Children spent 57% of their awaking time at school. School time PA opportunities (ie, recesses: ~18% of a child’s awaking time) accounted for >70% of the MVPAd among children. Then, MVPAd (Y) could be predicted from MVPAs (X) using the equation: Y = 2.06 X 0.88; R 2 = .889, P < .0001. Although, this model was sex-specifically determined, cross-validations showed valid estimates of MVPAd. Finally, with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 90%, MVPAs, a 34 min.d−1 was required to prompt the daily recommendation.

Conclusions:

The current study shows the contribution of MVPA at school to recommended activity levels and suggests the value of activity performed during recesses. It also calls for encouraging both home- and community-based interventions, predominantly directed toward girls.

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David Geard, Peter R.J. Reaburn, Amanda L. Rebar and Rylee A. Dionigi

determine if they are exemplars of successful aging according to the proposed definition; and (3) recommend future experimental research directions. Methods Articles deemed eligible for inclusion in this review were retrieved between March 2013 and June 2016 using the following databases: CINAHL, EBSCO

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Yilin Li and Weidong Li

findings to the intervention effect. The rest of the quantitative studies were correlational. Correlational studies do not infer any causal effect. Therefore, there is a need for more experimental research studies with a rigorous design and a large sample size to move this line of inquiry forward. There is

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Rainer Martens

The dissatisfaction with the existing scientific paradigm of social psychology, and its adoption in sport psychology, is discussed. Although many metapsychological issues are raised, attention focuses on the inadequacies of laboratory experimental research. As a partial solution in the development of a new paradigm, it is suggested that sport psychologists trade their smocks for “jocks,” turning their efforts to multivariate, long-term field research.

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Stephen F. Davis, Matthew T. Huss and Angela H. Becker

Research projects on reaction time, motor learning, and transfer of training, which were conducted in the late 1800s and early 1900s, as well as early attempts to relate personality development and sport, are among the roots of sport psychology. The first experimental research directly involving psychological factors and sport was conducted by Norman Triplett (1898). This paper surveys these early research projects and chronicles Triplett’s life and career.

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L. Jerome Brandon, Lisa W. Boyette, Adreinne Lloyd and Deborah A. Gaasch

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 24-month moderate-intensity resistive-training intervention on strength and function in older adults. A repeated-measures experimental research design was employed as a sample of 55 apparently healthy, older, community-dwelling volunteers (30 exercisers—25 women and 5 men; 25 comparisons—16 women and 9 men) were evaluated for strength of 5 muscle groups that influence lower extremity movement and physical function. Strength and function were evaluated at 6-month intervals. The findings from this study indicate that a moderate-intensity resistive-training program increases strength in older adults and that the strength benefits are retained for the duration of the intervention. Furthermore, a long-term strength-training program can increase independent-function skills in older adults and might therefore aid in prolonging functional independence.

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Phillip Ward and Tim Barrett

This article provides an overview of behavior analysis, reviewing its history and the experimental research conducted in physical education settings. Articles were selected from five journals by looking through each issue to identify those that used a single-subject design to assess the effects of behavioral interventions in P–12 or teacher preparation settings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized according to their focus: (a) preservice or inservice teacher behavior; (b) student learning; (c) class management; or (d) student learning specifically focused on students with disabilities in adapted or inclusive settings. The review describes the scope of the behavioral interventions and examines the research designs used. A methodological critique suggests that while findings have been robust and the designs used were typically rigorous, researchers have not assessed generality, maintenance, or social validity as well as they might. The article closes with recommendations for reviewers and authors.

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Katharina Geukes, Christopher Mesagno, Stephanie J. Hanrahan and Michael Kellmann

Trait activation theorists suggest that situational demands activate traits in (pressure) situations. In a comparison of situational demands of private (monetary incentive, cover story), mixed (monetary incentive, small audience), and public (large audience, video taping) high-pressure situations, we hypothesized that situational demands of private and mixed high-pressure conditions would activate self-focus traits and those of a public high-pressure condition would activate self-presentation traits. Female handball players (N = 120) completed personality questionnaires and then performed a throwing task in a low-pressure condition and one of three high-pressure conditions (n = 40). Increased anxiety levels from low to high pressure indicated successful pressure manipulations. A self-focus trait negatively predicted performance in private and mixed high-pressure conditions, and self-presentation traits positively predicted performance in the public high-pressure condition. Thus, pressure situations differed in their trait-activating situational demands. Experimental research investigating the trait–performance relationship should therefore use simulations of real competitions over laboratory-based scenarios.