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International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes

are influential rather than being experts on this topic. There is no universal system to categorise the supplements used by athletes, but it can be helpful to divide them (or their uses) into products that address specific nutrient deficiencies, sports foods, performance supplements, and supplements

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Paul G. Schempp and Sophie Woorons

Olympians pushing the limits of human performance, medical doctors discovering ways of fighting debilitating diseases, coaches finding fresh solutions to athlete development challenges—experts in every discipline make a difference in people’s daily lives. Experts are those who possess “the

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Derek T.Y. Mann, A. Mark Williams, Paul Ward and Christopher M. Janelle

Research focusing on perceptual-cognitive skill in sport is abundant. However, the existing qualitative syntheses of this research lack the quantitative detail necessary to determine the magnitude of differences between groups of varying levels of skills, thereby limiting the theoretical and practical contribution of this body of literature. We present a meta-analytic review focusing on perceptual-cognitive skill in sport (N = 42 studies, 388 effect sizes) with the primary aim of quantifying expertise differences. Effects were calculated for a variety of dependent measures (i.e., response accuracy, response time, number of visual fixations, visual fixation duration, and quiet eye period) using point-biserial correlation. Results indicated that experts are better than nonexperts in picking up perceptual cues, as revealed by measures of response accuracy and response time. Systematic differences in visual search behaviors were also observed, with experts using fewer fixations of longer duration, including prolonged quiet eye periods, compared with nonexperts. Several factors (e.g., sport type, research paradigm employed, and stimulus presentation modality) significantly moderated the relationship between level of expertise and perceptual-cognitive skill. Practical and theoretical implications are presented and suggestions for empirical work are provided.

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Hayley M. Ericksen, Brian Pietrosimone, Phillip A. Gribble and Abbey C. Thomas

greater reductions in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk compared with those that do not include feedback. 1 Various modes of feedback, including expert-provided feedback and self-analysis feedback, have been used to specifically reduce vertical ground reaction force and increase knee

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Fiona Pelly and Susie Parker Simmons

environment and policy that determine food availability ( Symmank et al., 2017 ). We previously reported on an expert review of the food provision for the London 2012 Olympic Games and found that there was limited choice of lower energy, low fat, and gluten-free items to meet the needs of athletes, as well as

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Richard J. Keegan, Lisa M. Barnett, Dean A. Dudley, Richard D. Telford, David R. Lubans, Anna S. Bryant, William M. Roberts, Philip J. Morgan, Natasha K. Schranz, Juanita R. Weissensteiner, Stewart A. Vella, Jo Salmon, Jenny Ziviani, Anthony D. Okely, Nalda Wainwright and John R. Evans

colleagues. Our research question was simply, how do leading experts in Australia—supported by international partners—define and construe physical literacy? Method Participants The Delphi method does not use a randomly sampled group, but rather experts are purposively targeted, after being identified by the

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Hai-Jung Steffi Shih, Danielle N. Jarvis, Pamela Mikkelsen and Kornelia Kulig

central nervous system often controls movement variability based on task relevance. For example, expert dancers exhibit greater trunk coordination variability right before landing of bipedal jumps, possibly a combined effect of feedback control from each unique flight characteristic and feedforward

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Collin A. Webster

Expert golf instructors self-monitor their instruction and communication more than any other aspects of their teaching (Schempp, McCullick, Busch, Webster, & Sannen-Mason, 2006). Despite its apparent importance, however, the communication of expert golf instructors has received little investigative attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional communication behaviors of 4 of the most highly accomplished golf instructors in the United States. Ladies Professional Golf Association instructors who met criteria for expert teaching (Berliner, 1994) and 4 students participated in the study. Videotaping, stimulated recall, and semistructured interviews were used to collect data on the teachers’ immediacy, communication style, and content relevance behaviors. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Findings indicated that the experts adapted their communication behaviors in ways that fit students’ learning preferences, personal experiences, and lesson goals. The findings resonate with previous research on expert teaching in terms of experts’ instructional flexibility.

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Kristoffer Henriksen, Louise Kamuk Storm, Natalia Stambulova, Nicklas Pyrdol and Carsten Hvid Larsen

. Based on interviews with expert sport psychology practitioners (SPPs), the present study investigates successful and less successful intervention experiences in two main contexts: competitive youth and elite senior sport. Successful sport psychology interventions are sensitized in the sense that they

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Cole Mueller and Mary Spencer Cain

LAS. However, there are numerous published expert opinion papers on RTS within the literature. Establishing agreement among such opinions could help to further clinical practice and research into this important area. Objective To determine if there was consensus among published expert opinions that