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Toby Staff, Fernand Gobet, and Andrew Parton

, Côté, & Ericsson, 2007 ) or talent ( Hambrick, Burgoyne, Macnamara, & Ullén, 2018 ; Lombardo & Deaner, 2014 ; Staff, Gobet, & Parton, 2020 ) in achieving expertise. Those researchers who emphasize the importance of practice largely de-emphasize the role of talent. Ericsson et al. ( 1993 ) stated that

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Thana Hodge and Janice M. Deakin

This study used participants from the martial arts (karate) to examine the influence of context in the acquisition of novel motor sequences and the applicability of Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch-Romer's (1993) theory of deliberate practice in this athletic domain. The presence of context did not benefit recall performance for the experts. The performance of the novice group was hindered by the presence of context. Evaluation of the role of deliberate practice in expert performance was assessed through retrospective questionnaires. The findings related to the relationship between relevance and effort, and relevance and enjoyment diverged from Ericsson et al.'s (1993) definition of deliberate practice, suggesting that adaptations should be made if it is to be considered general theory of expertise.

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Erich J. Petushek, Edward T. Cokely, Paul Ward, and Gregory D. Myer

Instrument-based biomechanical movement analysis is an effective injury screening method but relies on expensive equipment and time-consuming analysis. Screening methods that rely on visual inspection and perceptual skill for prognosticating injury risk provide an alternative approach that can significantly reduce cost and time. However, substantial individual differences exist in skill when estimating injury risk performance via observation. The underlying perceptual-cognitive mechanisms of injury risk identification were explored to better understand the nature of this skill and provide a foundation for improving performance. Quantitative structural and process modeling of risk estimation indicated that superior performance was largely mediated by specific strategies and skills (e.g., irrelevant information reduction), and independent of domain-general cognitive abilities (e.g., mental rotation, general decision skill). These cognitive models suggest that injury prediction expertise (i.e., ACL-IQ) is a trainable skill, and provide a foundation for future research and applications in training, decision support, and ultimately clinical screening investigations.

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Vanda Correia, Duarte Araújo, Alan Cummins, and Cathy M. Craig

This study used a virtual, simulated 3 vs. 3 rugby task to investigate whether gaps opening in particular running channels promote different actions by the ball carrier player and whether an effect of rugby expertise is verified. We manipulated emergent gaps in three different locations: Gap 1 in the participant’s own running channel, Gap 2 in the first receiver’s running channel, and Gap 3 in the second receiver’s running channel. Recreational, intermediate, professional, and nonrugby players performed the task. They could (i) run with the ball, (ii) make a short pass, or (iii) make a long pass. All actions were digitally recorded. Results revealed that the emergence of gaps in the defensive line with respect to the participant’s own position significantly influenced action selection. Namely, “run” was most often the action performed in Gap 1, “short pass” in Gap 2, and “long pass” in Gap 3 trials. Furthermore, a strong positive relationship between expertise and task achievement was found.

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Lisa Musculus, Jurek Bäder, Lukas Sander, and Tobias Vogt

Decision making is a well-established cognitive expertise factor in team sports ( Baker et al., 2003 ; Mann et al., 2007 ; Starkes et al., 2001 ). While expertise differences are widely acknowledged, indicating superior decision-making processes in experts as compared with near experts or novices

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Samira Moeinirad, Behrouz Abdoli, Alireza Farsi, and Nasour Ahmadi

science to gain insight into the visual search strategies of expert athletes and, consequently, to improve the performance of less-skilled athletes ( Van Maarseveen, Savelsbergh, & Oudejans, 2018 ). The findings indicated that expertise is related to differences in gaze control, and experts tend to apply

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Jack Hagyard, Jack Brimmell, Elizabeth J. Edwards, and Robert S. Vaughan

, & Oosterlaan, 2014 ). Research into the association between inhibitory control and athlete expertise has gained particular traction (e.g.,  Alves et al., 2013 ; Verburgh et al., 2014 ). However, studies have often failed to include intricate delineations of expertise (see Swann, Moran, & Piggott, 2015 , for

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Joshua Gold and Joseph Ciorciari

Certain sports with projectile balls, such as baseball, tennis, and cricket, place extreme demands on visual processing systems, to the point where player expertise comes down to the ability to anticipate the ball’s trajectory ( Farrow & Abernethy, 2003 ). This was evidenced by the lack of

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Bryony Buck, Scott Beveridge, Gerard Breaden Madden, and Hans-Christian Jabusch

rebound ( Dahl, 2011 ; Fletcher & Rossing, 1998 for review). Studies into accented drumming have demonstrated that the height and speed of strike trajectories increased with expertise ( Chen et al., 2016 ; Dahl, 2004 ), with intervals between single and accented strikes appearing shorter for loud, as

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Chih-Chia Chen, Yonjoong Ryuh, Tony Luczak, and John Lamberth

level was set at p  < .05. A 2 (level of expertise: novices and experts) × 4 (focus of attention instruction: control, internal focus, external proximal focus, and external distal focus) analysis of variance was used to compare the influence on golf putting performance (i.e., number of golf putts made