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Yonghwan Chang

effects of fit, EC, and introspection focus on changes in implicit and explicit attitudes and (b) the selective influences of the changed dual attitude on behavioral intention. This study proposes an expansion of the understanding of the effectiveness of athlete endorsement by integrating the contemporary

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

or indirect experience with the target object or activity, and may differ in magnitude and direction from an individual’s explicit attitude. People who exercise more frequently tend to have more positive implicit attitudes about exercise ( Markland, Hall, Duncan, & Simatovic, 2015 ). In one study

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Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Brad D. Carlson

different types of attitudes: implicit attitudes formed through implicit evaluations and explicit attitudes formed through propositional reasoning ( Greenwald & Banaji, 2017 ). In particular, unconscious evaluations are useful to identify and track complex association networks stored in consumers’ memory

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Donald R. Marks

Despite valuable research regarding multicultural encounters in sport psychology settings, the mechanisms by which culture operates, including the ways that it is transmitted and learned, and the specific processes though which it exerts influence upon behavior, remain poorly understood. Research also has not addressed how a dimension of experience that is so fundamental could remain so transparent and reside so consistently outside the awareness of researchers, clinicians, and clients. Recent contributions to cultural psychology using an interactivist model provide a theoretical perspective through which clinical sport psychologists could conceptualize these challenging issues and address the complex behaviors observed in cross-cultural contexts. Interactivism offers a framework for investigating the internally inconsistent “polyphonic,” or multivoiced, nature of the self. In doing so, it highlights the need for investigative methods that can account for frequent discrepancies between implicit attitudes and observed behaviors, on one hand, and explicit attitudes and behaviors as endorsed on self-report measures, on the other.

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Tanya R. Berry, Wendy M. Rodgers, David Markland and Craig R. Hall

Investigating implicit–explicit concordance can aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and possible intervention effects. This research examined the concordance between implicit associations of exercise with health or appearance and related explicit motives. Variables considered as possible moderators were behavioral regulations, explicit attitudes, and social desirability. Participants (N = 454) completed measures of implicit associations of exercise with health and appearance and questionnaire measures of health and appearance motives, attitudes, social desirability, and behavioral regulations. Attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between implicit associations of exercise with health and health motives. Identified regulations significantly moderated implicit–explicit concordance with respect to associations with appearance. These results suggest that implicit and explicit exercise-related cognitions are not necessarily independent and their relationship to each other may be moderated by attitudes or some forms of behavioral regulation. Future research that takes a dual-processing approach to exercise behavior should consider potential theoretical moderators of concordance.

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Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

narrow theoretical perspective ( Gainforth, West, & Michie, 2015 ). These constructs include explicit attitudes, anticipated benefits versus barriers, social norms, and self-efficacy, among others. The evidence accumulated thus far demonstrates that expressing a commitment and forming plans by following

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Tanya R. Berry, Wendy M. Rodgers, Alison Divine and Craig Hall

that are based on propositional beliefs. Preexisting associations held in memory are automatically activated by external inputs and inferred through the measurement outcome of an implicit task (i.e., implicit evaluations; Gawronski & Brannon, 2018 ). Explicit attitudes reflect reasoning about the

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Neil Maguire, Paul Chesterton and Cormac Ryan

validity of implicit and explicit attitude measures . Pain . 2005 ; 114 ( 3 ): 491 – 498 . PubMed ID: 15777874 doi:10.1016/j.pain.2005.01.017 10.1016/j.pain.2005.01.017 15777874 18. Cox T , Louw A , Puentedura EJ . An abbreviated therapeutic neuroscience education session improves pain

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

that form coherent judgments (e.g., explicit attitudes about exercise). Automatic processing produces implicit cognitions characteristic of uncontrolled gut reactions or emotion-driven thoughts (e.g., feelings of boredom) that can impact physical activity behavior outside of individuals’ deliberate

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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

:// Koenigstorfer , J. , & Groeppel-Klein , A. ( 2012 ). Implicit and explicit attitudes to sponsors and ambushers . European Sport Management Quarterly, 12 , 477 – 499 . doi:10.1080/16184742.2012.703682 10.1080/16184742.2012.703682 Koenigstorfer , J. , & Uhrich , S. ( 2017 ). Consumer