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Margaret P. Sanders and Nicholas P. Murray

’s performance and attainment of the new skill ( Abernathy, Schorer, Jackson, & Hagemann, 2012 ; Gabbett & Masters, 2011 ; Masters, Poolton, Maxwell, & Raab, 2008 ). Two forms of learning that can influence a person’s ability to acquire a new skill is implicit and explicit learning ( Dienes & Perner, 1999

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Jon Law, Rich Masters, Steven R. Bray, Frank Eves and Isabella Bardswell

Butler and Baumeister (1998) suggested that performance decrement of a difficult skill-based task occurring only in the presence of a supportive audience could be explained by “a cautious performance style” (p. 1226). A potential alternative explanation stems from Masters’ (1992) contention that skill failure under pressure occurs when performers attempt to control motor performance using explicit knowledge. It was proposed that a skill acquired with minimal metaknowledge (i.e., a limited explicit knowledge base) would remain robust regardless of audience type. To test this hypothesis, a table tennis shot was learned with either a greater or a lesser bank of explicit task knowledge. Performance was subsequently assessed in the presence of observation-only audiences, supportive audiences, and adversarial audiences. Consistent with hypotheses, supportive audiences induced performance decrement in the explicit-learning group only. It was argued that supportive audiences engender higher levels of internally focused attention than do adversarial or observation-only audiences, increasing the chance of disruption to skill execution when performance characteristics involve a large amount of explicit processing.

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Femke van Abswoude, John van der Kamp and Bert Steenbergen

; see also Schoemaker & Smits-Engelsman, 2015 ). Interestingly, these are constituents of explicit learning, but the benefits of these interventions were found to be dependent on children’s verbal abilities ( Green, Chambers, & Sugden, 2008 ). Hence, weaknesses in using, manipulating, and/or retaining

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Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke and James Hardy

the load on working memory since conscious processing is needed only for retrieving the first element of the chunk ( Willingham, 1998 ). Importantly, chunking is not restricted to explicit learning paradigms. Implicit learning, where skills are acquired with little awareness and limited accumulation

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Wing Kai Lam, Jon P. Maxwell and Richard Masters

The efficacy of analogical instruction, relative to explicit instruction, for the acquisition of a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under pressure was investigated using a modified (seated) basketball shooting task. Differences in attentional resource allocation associated with analogy and explicit learning were also examined using probe reaction times (PRT). Access to task-relevant explicit (declarative) knowledge was assessed. The analogy and explicit learning groups performed equally well during learning and delayed retention tests. The explicit group experienced a drop in performance during a pressured transfer test, relative to their performance during a preceding retention test. However, the analogy group's performance was unaffected by the pressure manipulation. Results from PRTs suggested that both groups allocated equal amounts of attentional resources to the task throughout learning and test trials. Analogy learners had significantly less access to rules about the mechanics of their movements, relative to explicit learners. The results are interpreted in the context of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory and Masters's (1992) theory of reinvestment.

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Jamie M. Poolton, Richard S.W. Masters and Jon P. Maxwell

Learning a motor skill by analogy can benefit performers because the movement that is developed has characteristics of implicit motor learning: namely, movement robustness under pressure and secondary task distraction and limited accrual of explicit knowledge (Liao & Masters, 2001). At an applied level the advantages are lost, however, if the heuristic that underpins the analogy conveys abstractions that are inappropriate for the indigenous culture. The aim of the current experiment was to redevelop Masters’s (2000) right-angled-triangle analogy to accommodate abstractions appropriate for Chinese learners. Novice Chinese participants learned to hit table tennis forehands with topspin using either a redeveloped, culturally appropriate analogy (analogy learning) or a set of 6 instructions relevant to hitting a topspin forehand in table tennis (explicit learning). Analogy learners accrued less explicit knowledge of the movements underlying their performance than explicit learners. In addition, a secondary task load disrupted the performance of explicit learners but not analogy learners. These findings indicate that a culturally relevant analogy can bring about implicit motor learning in a Chinese population.

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Reynold W.L. Lee, Andy C.Y. Tse and Thomson W.L. Wong

memory capacity to generate and manipulate the skills that are gained from explicit learning ( Gentile, 1998 ). Therefore, it would be beneficial to our older population if effective motor-learning techniques that require less working memory could be developed. Previous research has discovered that the

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Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto and Hideki Yasuda

, T. , & Yumoto , M. ( 2017 ). Single, but not dual, attention facilitates statistical learning of two concurrent auditory sequences . Scientific Reports, 7 , 10108 . 10.1038/s41598-017-10476-x DeKeyser , R. ( 2003 ). Implicit and explicit learning . In C.J.   Doughty & M.H.   Long (Eds

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse and Serge Brand

practicing in an implicit learning condition ( Vine et al., 2013 ). That is to say, following QET, the participants also improved their implicit learning skills, such as golf putts under stress conditions. Furthermore, Vine et al. ( 2013 ) compared the effects of QET to analogy and explicit learning, and

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Dalia Mickeviciene, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dovile Valanciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Marius Brazaitis and Albertas Skurvydas

interaction between implicit and explicit learning ( Wolpert & Flanagan, 2016 ). Moreover, research by other authors clearly shows that ∼7-year-old children have a higher tendency to learn in an implicit way ( Janacsek et al., 2012 ). We established that young adults chose a learning strategy of speed and