College athletes are exploited when some aspect of their athletic involvement mitigates against their receiving a full and useful education toward a postcollegiate career. We do not have a systematic means for assessing degree of academic exploitation within and among campuses. To be useful to athletes, measures are needed that will assess degree of exploitation while it is occurring and is correctable, rather than measuring exploitation after the fact. Two specific means for assessing academic performance and progress of athletes are suggested here. These measures provide a timely assessment of progress for athletes that more acutely measures their academic performance than traditional means. Further, these measures may become a base of data that can be used to assess academic performance of athletes between teams on a given campus or between schools. Privacy regulations prohibit researchers from obtaining raw data from academic records at institutions other than their own. A method for pooling and sharing this individually obtained data is suggested. Use could be made of this data base by social scientists, administrators, and prospective athletes who want to compare the academic environment for athletes at colleges they are considering.
Elaine M. Blinde and Susan L. Greendorfer
This paper is a synthesis of results from five separate studies examining how recent structural and philosophical changes in women’s intercollegiate sport programs may have altered the sport experience of female athletes. Based on both questionnaire and interview data, it was apparent that athletes participating in sport programs characterized by the greatest change (e.g., post-Title IX programs, programs of the 1980s, product-oriented sport models, and Division I programs of recent years) shared somewhat common experiences — with the presence of conflict being one of the most pervasive themes. Four types of conflict were identified: (a) value alienation, (b) role strain, (c) role conflict, and (d) exploitation. Each of these types of conflict is discussed and examples to substantiate the presence of each form of conflict are presented. Based upon the findings, it is suggested that the changing context and emphases of college sport may have exposed female athletes to different sets of circumstances, expectations, and experiences, thus altering the nature of the sport experience and bringing into question the educational legitimacy of college sport.
Áine MacNamara and Dave Collins
The importance of psychological characteristics as positive precursors of talent development is acknowledged in literature. Unfortunately, there has been little consideration of the “darker” side of the human psyche. It may be that an inappropriate emphasis on positive characteristics may limit progress. Negative characteristics may also imply derailment or the potential for problems. A comprehensive evaluation of developing performers should cater for positive dual effect and negative characteristics so that these may be exploited and moderated appropriately. An integrated and dynamic system, with a holistic integration of clinical and sport psychology, is offered as an essential element of development systems.
Joy D. Bringer, Celia H. Brackenridge and Lynne H. Johnston
Bringer, Brackenridge, and Johnston (2002) identified role conflict and ambiguity as an emerging theme for some swimming coaches who felt under increased scrutiny because of wider concerns about sexual exploitation in sport (Boocock, 2002). To further understand this emerging theme, 3 coaches who had engaged in sexual relations with athletes, or had allegations of abuse brought against them, took part in in-depth interviews. Grounded theory method (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was adopted to explore how these coaches responded differently to increased public scrutiny. The findings are discussed in relation to how sport psychologists can help to shape perceptions of coaching effectiveness that are congruent with child protection measures. Reflective practice is proposed as one method by which coaches may embed child and athlete protection in their definition of effective coaching, rather than seeing it as an external force to which they must accommodate.
Katherine J. Grahn and Erica Berman
Ellen J. Staurowsky
Using a critical theory approach, this paper examines how perceptions of historical accuracy impact on the legitimation of the Cleveland Indians’ claim that the Native imagery used in the promotion of the franchise was chosen to honor the first Native American to play in the major leagues, Louis Francis Sockalexis. An analysis was conducted of data gathered from Cleveland’s own account of the naming of the franchise along with past and present renderings and antecedents of the story as they appear in a variety of publications and media sources over a 100-year time period beginning in 1897 and ending in 1997. In light of the findings, Cleveland’s professed organizational intent to honor Sockalexis was tested and found to be based on faulty information. The implications of this discovery are addressed.
Tanya R. Prewitt-White
eventually engage in sexual acts with a child ( Lanning, 2018 ). It involves the child sex offender slowly gaining trust before systematically breaking down relational barriers between the perpetrator and child prior to committing sexual exploitation. This process may take anywhere from weeks to several
Leonardo Ruiz, Judy L. Van Raalte, Thaddeus France and Al Petitpas
Ortiz, Miguel Tejada, and Pedro Martinez have parlayed their Dominican Republic academy experience into baseball success. Questions about the academy system have been raised with regard to player exploitation, lack of education, steroid use, and age and identity fraud ( Klein, 2014 ; Wasch, 2009