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Paul M. Wright, K. Andrew R. Richards, Jennifer M. Jacobs, and Michael A. Hemphill

) developing items to be included on the ToRQ, (b) identifying a stable factor structure for the ToRQ using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), (c) confirming the factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using a separate participant sample, and (d) examining the extent to which the ToRQ correlates

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Hongying Wang, Bo Shen, and Jin Bo

Measurement The current measurement of SI in physical education is primarily based on Chen, Darst, and Pangrazi’s (1999) Situational Interest Scale. With the belief that SI is a multidimensional construct, Chen, et al. ( 1999 ) developed an SI in middle schools. Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and

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Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Katie E. Gunnell, and Mark Stephen Tremblay

served as the analytic sample for an exploratory factor analysis (EFA; n = 559, with 260 boys and 299 girls) and group 2 served as the analytic sample for a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; n = 544, with 236 boys and 308 girls). Eligibility and Exclusion Criteria This study considered eligible

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Cheng Li, Christy Hullings, Wei Wang, and Debra M. Palmer Keenan

SAS software (version 9.4; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Figure 1 —Scale development process. CFA indicates confirmatory factor analysis; EFA, exploratory factor analysis; PAQ-A, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents; PBPA-A, Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Survey for Low

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Fengjuan Li, Junjun Chen, and Miles Baker

While there have been many studies into students’ attitudes toward Physical Education at the school level, far fewer studies have been conducted at the university level, especially in China. This study explored 949 students’ attitudes toward their university Physical Education experiences in four Chinese universities. An intercorrelated model of students’ attitudes toward Physical Education comprised of five dimensions, namely Physical Fitness, Self-Actualization and Social Development, Physical Education Curriculum, Physical Education Teachers, and Physical Education Teaching, was conceptually and empirically developed and tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The overall findings suggested that the students had moderately positive attitudes toward Physical Education. More specifically, the findings indicated that students’ attitudes had a significantly positive moderate association with their current participation, a small association with their intended lifelong participation in physical activity outside school, and a significantly positive moderate association with their Physical Education academic achievement. Implications for Physical Education teacher training and curriculum modifications are discussed.

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Sebastian S. Sandgren, Emma Haycraft, and Carolyn R. Plateau

(Section A), Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed. The EFA is suitable when evaluating ordinal data (e.g.,  Baglin, 2014 ; Hurley et al., 1997 ), and a minimum of 200 participants is typically required (e.g.,  Jung & Lee, 2011 ; Kyriazos, 2018 ). The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin test for sampling

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Leilani A. Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur Maerlender, and Debra Hope

exploratory factor analysis was necessary to explore the emergence of sports-related anxiety factors. Next, using a split-sample procedure, a confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate the factor structure from exploratory factor analysis to determine how well the model fit the data. In further

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Jian Wang, Bo Shen, Xiaobin Luo, Qingshan Hu, and Alex C. Garn

complete. The sample of 322 teachers who completed the measures was randomly split into two sub-samples. Responses of the first subsample ( n  = 162; female = 50) were analyzed with maximum-likelihood exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotations to provide preliminary evidence of the structure of

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Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner, and Jacob K. Tingle

school sports (65%), travel teams (56%), intercollegiate athletics (44%), college club teams (30%), Junior Olympic sports (30%), college intramurals (22%), and professional sports (10%). Data Analysis First, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to explore the 10 factors based on the work of

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Dana K. Voelker, Nick Galli, Maya Miyairi, Justine J. Reel, and Karley James

confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS (version 23; Arbuckle, 2014 ; Jöreskog, 1993 ). Due to inadequate model fit, a follow-up exploratory factor analysis was conducted on these same data (e.g.,  Bofah & Hannula, 2014 ). To assess the internal consistency reliability of the resultant model