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Carlos Marta, Ana R. Alves, Pedro T. Esteves, Natalina Casanova, Daniel Marinho, Henrique P. Neiva, Roberto Aguado-Jimenez, Alicia M. Alonso-Martínez, Mikel Izquierdo and Mário C. Marques

conditions ( 10 ). Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effects of ST versus traditional strength training on explosive strength in prepubescent boys. Methods Subjects The sample consisted of 57 prepubescent boys aged between 10 and 11 years old (from fifth and sixth grades) in a Portuguese

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Kris Beattie, Brian P. Carson, Mark Lyons and Ian C. Kenny

Cycling economy (CE), power output at maximal oxygen uptake (WV̇O2max), and anaerobic function (ie, sprinting ability) are considered the best physiological performance indicators in elite road cyclists. In addition to cardiovascular function, these physiological indicators are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20-wk maximal- and explosive-strength-training intervention on strength (maximal strength, explosive strength, and bike-specific explosive strength), WV̇O2max, CE, and body composition (body mass, fat and lean mass) in cyclists. Fifteen competitive road cyclists were divided into an intervention group (endurance training and strength training: n = 6; age, 38.0 ± 10.2 y; weight, 69.1 ± 3.6 kg; height, 1.77 ± 0.04 m) and a control group (endurance training only: n = 9; age, 34.8 ± 8.5 y; weight, 72.5 ± 7.2 kg; height, 1.78 ± 0.05 m). The intervention group strength-trained for 20 wk. Each participant completed 3 assessments: physiology (CE, WV̇O2max, power at 2 and 4 mmol/L blood lactate), strength (isometric midthigh pull, squat-jump height, and 6-s bike-sprint peak power), and body composition (body mass, fat mass, overall leanness, and leg leanness). The results showed significant between- and within-group changes in the intervention group for maximal strength, bike-specific explosive strength, absolute WV̇O2max, body mass, overall leanness, and leg leanness at wk 20 (P < .05). The control group showed no significant within-group changes in measures of strength, physiology, or body composition. This study demonstrates that 20 wk of strength training can significantly improve maximal strength, bike-specific explosive strength, and absolute WV̇O2max in competitive road cyclists.

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Michael Wälchli, Jan Ruffieux,, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller and Wolfgang Taube

was, therefore, to test whether postural control can be improved by means of child-oriented BT in young children as early as the age of 6 and to compare their training-induced adaptations with those of older children and adolescents. In addition, jump performance and explosive strength were analyzed

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Anders Holsgaard-Larsen, Paolo Caserotti, Lis Puggaard and Per Aagaard

Explosive-type strength training may alter kinetics and neuromuscular activity during stair ascent in elderly women. This may improve functional ability. Nineteen women (69.7 ± 3.4 yr) were randomly allocated to strength training (TG; twice per wk, 12 wk) or a control group (CG). Stair ascent was assessed at self-chosen (AFV), standardized (ASV), and maximal velocity (AMV) pre- and posttraining. Ground-reaction force (GRF) and EMG quantified kinetics and neuromuscular activity. After training, TG increased AMV and AFV velocity by 8% (p = .02) and 17% (p = .007), respectively (TG vs. CG; p < .05). This was accompanied by elevated rectus femoris EMG (from 21% to 48%, p < .047). At AFV, TG increased GRF first peak force 4% (p = .047), and CG increased second peak force 5% (p = .036). Muscle coactivation remained unaltered in both groups. Explosive-type strength training led to enhanced stair-climbing performance at maximal and self-chosen speed, reflecting an improved functional ability.

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Claire J. Brady, Andrew J. Harrison, Eamonn P. Flanagan, G. Gregory Haff and Thomas M. Comyns

Sports Exerc . 2008 ; 40 ( 11 ): 654 – 659 . doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181893f30 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181893f30 24. Beattie K , Carson BP , Lyons M , Kenny IC . The effect of maximal- and explosive-strength training on performance indicators in cyclists . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2017

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Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Paweł Cięszczyk and Kazimierz Kochanowicz

thus the RTD capabilities in adults, can be achieved through specialized training that emphasizes muscle contraction in sports requiring explosive strength. It has been demonstrated that even just training with the intent to perform explosive contractions with isometric (no velocity) contractions can

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Jorg Teichmann, Edin K. Suwarganda, C. Martyn Beaven, Kim Hébert-Losier, Jin Wei Lee, Florencio Tenllado Vallejo, Philip Chun Foong Lew, Ramlan Abdul Aziz, Yeo Wee Kian and Dietmar Schmidtbleicher

substantial improvements in running sprint speed and concentric-only jump performance lead us to concur with the statement by Gruber and colleagues 6 that sensorimotor training is a “highly efficient” modality for improving explosive strength. The quantitatively large improvement in 5-m running sprint

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Gaston Beunen, Martine Thomis, Maarten Peeters, Hermine H. Maes, Albrecht L. Claessens and Robert Vlietinck

The aim of this study is to quantify the genetic and environmental variation in isometric and explosive strength (power) in children and adolescents, using structural equation models. Arm pull (static strength) and vertical jump (explosive strength, power) were measured in 105 twin pairs from the Leuven Longitudinal Twin Study. Boys and girls were tested at annual intervals between 10 and 16 years and at 18 years. Path models were fitted to the observed strength characteristics and a gender heterogeneity analysis was performed at each age level. A model including additive genetic and specific environmental factors (AE-model) allowing for a difference in total phenotypic variance or in genetic/environmental variance components in boys and girls best explains both strength characteristics at most age levels. The additive genetic contribution for isometric strength varies between a2 = .44 and a2 = .83, and for explosive strength between a2 = .47 and a2 = .92, except at 16 years in males. In conclusion there is good evidence that during the growth period both static and explosive strength are under moderate to moderately strong genetic influence.

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Helen T. Douda, Argyris G. Toubekis, Alexandra A. Avloniti and Savvas P. Tokmakidis

Purpose:

To identify the physiological and anthropometric predictors of rhythmic gymnastics performance, which was defined from the total ranking score of each athlete in a national competition.

Methods:

Thirty-four rhythmic gymnasts were divided into 2 groups, elite (n = 15) and nonelite (n = 19), and they underwent a battery of anthropometric, physical fitness, and physiological measurements. The principal-components analysis extracted 6 components: anthropometric, flexibility, explosive strength, aerobic capacity, body dimensions, and anaerobic metabolism. These were used in a simultaneous multiple-regression procedure to determine which best explain the variance in rhythmic gymnastics performance.

Results:

Based on the principal-component analysis, the anthropometric component explained 45% of the total variance, flexibility 12.1%, explosive strength 9.2%, aerobic capacity 7.4%, body dimensions 6.8%, and anaerobic metabolism 4.6%. Components of anthropometric (r = .50) and aerobic capacity (r = .49) were significantly correlated with performance (P < .01). When the multiple-regression model—y = 10.708 + (0.0005121 × VO2 max) + (0.157 × arm span) + (0.814 × midthigh circumference) - (0.293 × body mass)—was applied to elite gymnasts, 92.5% of the variation was explained by VO2max (58.9%), arm span (12%), midthigh circumference (13.1%), and body mass (8.5%).

Conclusion:

Selected anthropometric characteristics, aerobic power, flexibility, and explosive strength are important determinants of successful performance. These findings might have practical implications for both training and talent identification in rhythmic gymnastics.

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Herbert W. Marsh and Robyn Sutherland Redmayne

This study examines relations between six components of physical self-concept (Endurance, Balance, Flexibility, Strength, Appearance, and general Physical Ability) and five components of physical fitness (Endurance, Balance, Flexibility, Static Strength, Explosive Strength/Power) for a sample (N = 105) of young adolescent girls aged 13 and 14. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses identified the six physical self-concept scales and provided support for a multidimensional, hierarchical model of physical self-concept. The pattern of correlations between specific components of physical self-concept and physical fitness generally supported the construct validity of the self-concept responses, and the correlation between second-order factors representing general physical self-concept and general physical fitness (r = .76) was substantial.