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Francesca Wightman, Suzanne Delves, Caroline M. Alexander and Paul H. Strutton

Descending bilateral control of external oblique (EO) and latissimus dorsi (LD) was investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Contralateral (CL) motor evoked potential (MEP) thresholds were lower and latencies were shorter than for ipsilateral (IL) MEPs. Hotspots for EO were symmetrical; this was not the case for LD. The volumes of drive to the left and right muscles were not different. The laterality index was not different between the left and right muscles. The average index for the EO muscles was closer to zero than that for LD, suggesting a stronger IL drive to EO. The symmetry of drive to each muscle did not differ; however, the symmetry of drive varies within a subject for different muscles and between subjects for the same muscle. The findings may be useful in understanding a number of clinical conditions relating to the trunk and also for predicting the outcome of rehabilitative strategies.

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Chi-Whan Choi, Jung-Wan Koo and Yeon-Gyu Jeong

electromyographic evidence, the side-bridge exercise is the most effective technique to simultaneously activate the muscular spine stabilizers such as the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and quadratus lumborum (QL). 4 During this exercise, the 3 layers of the abdominal wall (the EO, IO, and

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Kunal Bhanot, Navpreet Kaur, Lori Thein Brody, Jennifer Bridges, David C. Berry and Joshua J. Ode

Abbreviations: CAI, chronic ankle instability; LE, lower-extremity. The Biopac MP 36 System (Biopac Systems Inc, Santa Barbara, CA) was used to collect all the EMG data. 25 , 26 Surface EMG was collected from the erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EOB), and rectus abdominis (RA) bilaterally (ipsilateral

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James W. Youdas, Hannah E. Baartman, Brian J. Gahlon, Tyler J. Kohnen, Robert J. Sparling and John H. Hollman

be directed to movement at its distal end. Trunk muscles such as the external oblique, internal oblique, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae provide spinal stabilization, so the prime mover muscles (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, serratus anterior, and triceps brachii) can generate forceful arm

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Lauren J. Lattimer, Joel L. Lanovaz, Jonathan P. Farthing, Stéphanie Madill, Soo Kim, Stephen Robinovitch and Cathy Arnold

(triceps brachii, biceps brachii) ( DeGoede & Ashton-Miller, 2003 ) and wrist (extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi ulnaris) ( Burkhart & Andrews, 2013 ) and have not considered shoulder or trunk muscles. Muscle activation of the abdominals (external obliques) has been found to help stabilize the spine

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Kristi Edgar, Aimee Appel, Nicholas Clay, Adam Engelsgjerd, Lauren Hill, Eric Leeseberg, Allison Lyle and Erika Nelson-Wong

, Inc, Olstykke, Denmark) were applied over 6 bilateral muscle groups (Figure  1 ): external obliques, internal obliques, erector spinae (ES) (L1 level), GMed, GMax, and lateral hamstrings (HS). All electrode placements were confirmed through palpation and manual resistance. Raw EMG signals were

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Han-Kyu Park, Dong-Woo Kim and Tae-Ho Kim

. The sampling rate for the signals was set to 1500 Hz. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction measurement positions of both internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles were measured using Kendall’s technique. 30 The maximal voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle was performed

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Lukas D. Linde, Jessica Archibald, Eve C. Lampert and John Z. Srbely

) were placed in alignment with muscle fiber orientation over the left (LIO) and right (RIO) internal oblique, left (LEO) and right (REO) external oblique, and left (LES) and right (RES) erector spinae muscles at the third lumbar level. 11 Surface EMG was sampled at 2000 Hz (Bortec Biomedical Ltd

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Timothy J. Gibbons and Marie-Louise Bird

), internal oblique abdominis (IO), and external oblique abdominis (EO). 9 Real-time ultrasound is used extensively in musculoskeletal investigations and has advantages when applied in rehabilitation. 11 Figure 1 —Image of Oov. The primary objective of this study was to compare ultrasound measurements of TrA

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Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo, Vinícius Yan Santos Nascimento, Rafaela Joyce Barbosa Torres, Francis Trombini-Souza, David Behm and Ana Carolina Rodarti Pitangui

seventh rib (SA_7th), external oblique (EO) and internal oblique (IO) muscles, 7 channels from the system EMG1232C (EMG System do Brasil Ltda ® , São José dos Campos, Brazil) were used. The EMG recordings were obtained through self-adhesive electrodes (Ag/AgCl sensor). The electrodes were positioned in a