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Aftab E. Patla and Anne Shumway-Cook

Mobility, the ability to move independently, is critical to maintaining independence and quality of life. Among older adults, mobility disability results when an individual cannot meet the demands of the environment. Current approaches to defining mobility rely on distance and time measures, or decompose mobility into subtasks (e.g., climbing, sit to stand), but provide limited understanding of mobility in the elderly. In this paper, a new conceptual framework identifies the critical environmental factors, or dimensions, that operationally define mobility within a given community, such as ambient conditions (light levels, weather conditions) and terrain characteristics (stairs, curbs). Our premise is that the environment and the individual conjointly determine mobility disability. Mobility in the elderly is defined not by the number of tasks a person can or cannot perform, but by the range of environmental contexts in which tasks can be safely carried out: the more disabled, the more restrictive the dimensions.

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Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Stephen D. Patterson, and Brook Galna

Accommodation of these varying internal and external demands directly affect performance 4 with the adopted pacing strategy representing a behavioral expression of continuous decision making. 5 When examined at increased resolution, these fluctuations may illustrate complex intrinsic control strategies to

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Michael S. Willett, Damon P.S. Andrew, and Mary E. Rudisill

Market pressures and external demands to sustain access, improve cost management and accountability, and increase productivity continue to persist in departments and schools of kinesiology. Confidence in the sustainability of an institution’s business model is eroding. To address these challenges, one possible approach for enhancing institutional performance, accountability, and stability is to revise an institution’s management process or budgeting model. Indicators suggest that many institutions are changing budget models to an incentive-based budgeting (IBB) system (i.e., responsibility-centered management [RCM]). The management strategies reviewed in this article are important for higher education budget administrators that implement, or are considering implementing, an IBB system as a means for assessing outcomes or institutional decision-making.

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Sean P. Flanagan, Joo-Eun Song, Man-Ying Wang, Gail A. Greendale, Stanley P. Azen, and George J. Salem

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether increases in internal (muscular) demand would be proportional to increases in the external demand during heel-raise exercise. Seven male (mean age 74.9 ± 4.8 years) and 9 female (mean age 74.4 ± 5.1 years) older adults performed both double-leg heel raises and single-leg heel raises under 3 loading conditions (no external resistance and +5% and +10% of each participant’s body weight). Kinematic and kinetic dependent variables were calculated using standard inverse-dynamics techniques. The results suggest that although the single-heel raise led to increases in peak net joint moments, power, and mechanical-energy expenditure (MEE), it did so at the expense of range of motion and angular velocity. In addition, increasing the external resistance by 5% of participants’ body weight did not elicit significant changes in either the power or the MEE of the ankle joint. These effects should be considered when prescribing these exercises to older adults.

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Stephen S. Cheung

committee work have only accelerated over my career. When mentoring younger colleagues, it’s critical to appreciate this change in landscape and take the load off of them in terms of external demands like administrative duties. At the same time, we must facilitate opportunities for them to become leaders in

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Frank E. DiLiberto, Deborah A. Nawoczenski, and Jeff Houck

external demands. Further characterization of normal midfoot kinetic performance (ie, external power) during functional activities with more challenging loading conditions will assist multisegment foot model applications and advance internal mechanistic theories of normal and pathological foot function

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Gabriele Gallo, Peter Leo, Manuel Mateo-March, Andrea Giorgi, Emanuela Faelli, Piero Ruggeri, Iñigo Mujika, and Luca Filipas

used (ie, elevation correction). 18 In addition, the total annual number of races was also recorded (race days). The percentage of the annual exercise duration spent in races (race percentage) and the elevation gain per distance ratio were also calculated. Race External Demands Race external demands

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Markus N.C. Williams, Jordan L. Fox, Cody J. O’Grady, Samuel Gardner, Vincent J. Dalbo, and Aaron T. Scanlan

appropriate stimuli are prescribed throughout the regular season, player demands can be monitored by high-performance staff in basketball teams. In this regard, the prescribed physical stimuli delivered to players (ie, external demands) and subsequent responses of players (ie, internal demands) can be

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Markus N.C. Williams, Vincent J. Dalbo, Jordan L. Fox, Cody J. O’Grady, and Aaron T. Scanlan

higher demands across all variables during games compared with training. The greater external demands during games for frontcourt players may be underpinned by the increased game exposure among the 4 frontcourt players monitored with 3 of these players typically competing at any one time during games

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Thomas Mullen, Craig Twist, Matthew Daniels, Nicholas Dobbin, and Jamie Highton

contribute to the task load (ie, the cost of performing a task on the individual 13 ) experienced by players during team sport competition. Indeed, the dynamic psychophysiological demands experienced by players are constructed from the task demands (eg, external demands of match-play), the contextual factors