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Jasper Gielen, Elise Mehuys, Daniel Berckmans, Romain Meeusen, and Jean-Marie Aerts

intensity was also validated but only during training sessions. For vertical jump training, the load is often arbitrary and simply controlled by the number of jumps performed. 4 In addition to monitoring external loads, such as jumping intensity, wearables are also used to monitor physiological variables

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Per T. Byrkjedal, Thomas Bjørnsen, Live S. Luteberget, Kolbjørn Lindberg, Andreas Ivarsson, Eirik Haukali, and Matt Spencer

expected. Despite the comprehensive search for relevant physical performance tests that relate to markers of game performance, it is surprising to observe the lack of studies including any on-ice external load measures from gameplay situations. Comparison between physical fitness and external load from

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Phillip M. Bellinger, Cameron Ferguson, Tim Newans, and Clare L. Minahan

/her overall readiness to train and compete. 11 There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that a reduction in subjective wellness has a negative impact on the subsequent external load of training. 4 , 10 Recently, Gallo et al 4 were able to demonstrate that a reduced wellness z score corresponded to

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Michel Marina, Priscila Torrado, Blai Ferrer-Uris, and Albert Busquets

might need other training strategies to achieve the adaptations necessary to perform the iron cross. Adding external load to the body weight while using the herdos (LH IC ) could fulfill this purpose. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to verify among the achievers of the IC if the LH IC

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Yusuf Köklü, Utku Alemdaroğlu, Hamit Cihan, and Del P. Wong

rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) and external loads (eg, total distance covered; maximum speed; quantity of low-, moderate-, and high-intensity running). While high-intensity aerobic training sessions are used for the development of endurance performance in athletes, 1 for soccer players an

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Muammer Altun

external loads to muscles. 14 However, there are external loads acting on the muscles and joints, such as acceleration, deceleration, jumping to certain heights, and the defensive actions of opponents. 12 , 15 These issues might additionally deteriorate sports movement efficiency. Thus, the

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Dawn Scott, Dean Norris, and Ric Lovell

are theoretically able to better tolerate or even perform greater absolute match running performances (if necessary) in matches. Application of player-specific speed thresholds based upon fitness attributes is one method of individualizing the evaluation of external loads in team sports. A number of

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Carlo Castagna, Stefano D’Ottavio, Stefano Cappelli, and Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas

the relevance of acceleration and deceleration, more than sustained speed in determining external load in all-out SSG. 4 , 5 In this regard, emphasis on players’ maximal or near maximal effort maintenance for a prolonged period of time (ie, 30–40 s) has been proposed as a LSA training aim. 4 The

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Sonia Sahli, Haithem Rebai, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Zouheir Tabka, and Georges Poumarat


There is limited information about the effects of increasing load while squatting


To quantify tibiofemoral joint kinetics during squatting with variable loads.


Research laboratory.


20 male students.


Tibiofemoral joint kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of four involved muscles were determined by recording the half squat with variable external loads.

Main Outcome Measures:

Tibiofemoral joint force and external moment components and EMG activity of four involved muscles.


Throughout the exercise, a posterior direction for the antero-posterior shear force and a net extension for the external moment were observed. They increased with knee flexion reaching peak force of 29% of the subject body weight (BW) and moment of 88Nm (without external load). All force and moment components and muscle activities increased as the external load increased.


These findings suggest that half squat may be safe to use for quadriceps strengthening with very low potential loading on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Our data can help clinicians choose the appropriate external load.

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Efthymios Kyprianou, Lorenzo Lolli, Matthew Weston, and Warren Gregson

familiarization. Nevertheless, no study to date explored the moderating effect of familiarization with the CR100 scale on RPE anchored against proxy measures of external load during training and matches in youth soccer. With this in mind, we aimed to explore whether familiarization with subjective RPE moderates