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Shannon Gadbois, Anne Bowker, Linda Rose-Krasnor and Leanne Findlay

Research on youth participation in extracurricular activities has shown an array of benefits including better academic performance, emotion regulation, initiative, and positive social development (e.g.,  Denault & Poulin, 2016 ; Eccles, Barber, Stone, & Hunt, 2003 ; Hansen, Skorupski, & Arrington

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Mireille Blais

Most of the existing ecological studies have been conducted during class instructional time. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe (a) how students (N = 102; grade 2–4) engaged in a strategy named Health Passport taking place mainly outside of school time and (b) how four physical education teachers held students accountable for their involvement in physical activity during a long period of time (3–7 months). An inductive approach guided the data analysis, based on observational notes, interviews, and the content of the students’ Health Passport. The results indicated that children displayed five different profiles of involvement in the completion of the tasks related to their passport. Physical education teachers chose to trust students’ self-management capacity instead of using a formal evaluation to hold them accountable. The experiment of the Health Passport showed that physical education teachers can put together and implement accountability strategies to support students’ regular practice of physical activity at home.

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Susan C. Brown

This study sought to identify significant predictors of success (a) in a graduate program of sport management at a major research institution in the United States and (b) in initial employment success. Regression analysis identified four significant predictors for success in the graduate program. The variables that produced a positive relationship with the dependent variable—final graduate grade point average—were age upon application, number of years of extracurricular activity involvement in undergraduate school, and undergraduate grade point average. The number of years in a full-time position in sport management upon application produced a significant negative relationship. Discriminant analysis was used to identify possible predictors of initial employment success identified as time from graduation to employment in a sport management position. However, no significant predictors were found.

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Michael B. Edwards, Michael A. Kanters and Jason N. Bocarro

Background:

This study’s purpose was to assess the opportunities for North Carolina adolescents to be physically active in extracurricular middle school environments and to compare opportunities across community types.

Methods:

Data were analyzed based on the results of an electronic questionnaire distributed to a sample of 431 schools with a response rate of 75.4% (N = 325).

Results:

Nearly all schools offered interscholastic sports while fewer than half offered intramurals or noncompetitive activities to students. “Open gym” was offered at only 35% of schools, while 24% of schools offered extracurricular activities to students with disabilities. Overall, 43.4% of schools offered special transportation to students who participated in some extracurricular physical activities. Schools in rural areas generally offered fewer programs and had fewer supports than schools located in more urbanized areas. Over two-thirds of rural schools offered no extracurricular programs other than interscholastic sports.

Conclusions:

Schools can be important settings for physical activity. North Carolina’s middle schools and its rural schools in particular, are falling short in efforts to provide extracurricular physical activity programming recommended by researchers and policy groups.1−6 Lower accessibility to extracurricular physical activities may partially contribute to higher levels of physical inactivity found in the state.

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Francesca Gallè, Valeria Di Onofrio, Fabio Barbone, Giorgio Brandi, Sebastiano Calimeri, Elisabetta Carraro, Federica Carraturo, Laura Dallolio, Concetta De Meo, Mauro De Santi, Guglielmina Fantuzzi, Francesca Fortunato, Ilaria Gorrasi, Marco Guida, Daniele Ignazio La Milia, Erica Leoni, Daniela Lo Giudice, Liliana Minelli, Christian Napoli, Maria Parpinel, Cesira Pasquarella, Rosa Prato, Vincenzo Romano Spica, Carlo Signorelli, Silvio Tafuri, Federica Valeriani, Giorgio Liguori and Working Group “Movement Sciences for Health” of the Italian Society of Hygiene

Background:

Physical education (PE) can be considered an instrument for active lifestyle promotion, and PE teachers can motivate youths to continue their studies in the field of Movement Sciences (MS).

Methods:

To evaluate the role of PE in higher secondary school in promoting physical activity (PA) and MS careers, previous PE experiences and current PA practice were investigated in a sample of Italian freshmen enrolled in different university degree courses.

Results:

A total of 7033 questionnaires were completed by students from 14 universities (41.3% males, mean age 20 ± 2.76 years). Recreation seemed to be the principal aim (42.2%) pursued during PE lessons, which are based mainly on practical activities (51.7%). Of all respondents, 67.2% were satisfied with the PE received during higher secondary school, and 51.6% participated in extracurricular PA. Current practice of PA was reported by 58.1% of the sample. Extracurricular activities were associated with choice of MS curricula (odds ratio: 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.85–2.50) and with current practice of PA (odds ratio: 1.68, 95% confidence interval, 1.51–1.87). Geographical differences concerning lessons organization and satisfaction were registered (P < .01).

Conclusions:

To enhance its role in health promotion, PE teaching should be improved by increasing the time allocated to PE and by strengthening the provision of school-based extracurricular PA.

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Susan B. Sisson and Stephanie T. Broyles

Background:

The primary and secondary purposes were to examine social-ecological correlates of excessive TV viewing (>2hr/day) in American children 1) between race/ethnic groups and 2) between boys and girls.

Methods:

Children (n = 48,505) aged 6 to 18 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health were included. Social-ecological correlates included individual-, family-, and community-level variables. Logistic regression analyses were used for race/ethnicity [Non-Hispanic White (NHW), Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Hispanic, other] and sex groups (boys, girls), to determine associated correlates.

Results:

By race/ethnicity, 16.6%, 37.8%, and 24.5% of NHW, NHB, and Hispanic exceeded recommendations. For boys and girls, 23.7% and 18.2% viewed excessive TV. Having a TV in the bedroom and higher poverty level were associated with excessive TV in all groups. Differences by race/ethnicity were age, sex, TV in the bedroom, extracurricular activities, physical activity, adequate sleep, family structure, family meals, knowing child’s friends, parent/ child communication, and neighborhood characteristics. Differences by sex were family structure, parent/ child communication, family meals, and neighborhood elements.

Conclusion:

Social-ecological correlates and associated prevalence of excessive TV viewing differed across subgroups. These specific correlates can be targeted in tailored interventions.

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Phillip Ward, Emi Tsuda, Fatih Dervent and Erhan Devrilmez

Purpose: Little is known about how teachers acquire specialized content knowledge (SCK). We examine the hypothesis that SCK is not acquired from K-12 physical education and from extracurricular activities characterized by playing; instead, SCK must be explicitly taught to teachers. Method: Students were enrolled in either basic physical activity instruction classes (n = 119), where the focus of instruction was on learning to play (common content knowledge), or physical education teacher education movement classes (n = 72), where the focus of instruction was on learning to teach (SCK). Content maps were used to assess the SCK of the study participants prior to and after receiving instruction in badminton, tennis, basketball, and volleyball. Results: Non-parametric statistics showed significant differences in pretest scores. However, these differences were determined to be not meaningful. Pre-post gains were significant for both groups but, meaningfully different only for the teaching group. Discussion: Findings demonstrate that (a) SCK is not acquired in any depth from engagement in K-12 physical education and extracurricular experiences, and (b) can be explicitly taught to teachers.

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Arunas Emeljanovas, Brigita Mieziene, Rita Gruodyte-Raciene, Saulius Sukys, Renata Rutkauskaite, Laima Trinkuniene, Natalija Fatkulina and Inga Gerulskiene

class twice per week. Exercise-based extracurricular activities at secondary schools are chosen by 23.4% of school-aged children. 3 – 5 Active Play INC Approximately 7.5% of 6-9 year old children play outside for 2 hours/day. There is a lack of data for other age groups. 5 Active Transportation C- 45

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Stéphanie Turgeon, Kelsey Kendellen, Sara Kramers, Scott Rathwell and Martin Camiré

Sport is one of the most popular extracurricular activities for high school students in Canada and the United States. In Canada, high school sports are practiced by over 750,000 student-athletes throughout the country ( School Sport Canada, 2018 ). In the United States, high school sport

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Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He and Jianzhen Su

schooling and extracurricular activities is known as the SCK hypothesis. The SCK hypothesis is derived from the work of Ball et al. ( 2008 ) and Ward ( 2009 ), who have argued that SCK represents knowledge that is not acquired by participation or performing an activity. They describe SCK as a special kind