extend these observations to an elite cohort under conditions of extreme heat and humidity, which resulted in a more pronounced slowing; equivalent time differential was 05.09 (01.37) minutes. Thus, small errors in initial exercise pace are significant in terms of their overall influence on performance
Harry Beal, Jo Corbett, Danielle Davis, and Martin J. Barwood
Carol A. Parise and Martin D. Hoffman
Even pacing has been recommended for optimal performances in running distances up to 100 km. Trail ultramarathons traverse varied terrain, which does not allow for even pacing.
This study examined differences in how runners of various abilities paced their efforts in the Western States Endurance Run (WSER), a 161 km trail ultramarathon in North America, under hot vs cooler temperatures.
Temperatures in 2006 (hot) and 2007 (cooler) ranged from 7-38°C and 2-30°C, respectively. Arrival times at 13 checkpoints were recorded for 50 runners who finished the race in both years. After stratification into three groups based on finish time in 2007 (<22, 22-24, 24-30 h), paired t tests were used to compare the difference in pace across checkpoints between the years within each group. The χ2 test was used to compare differences between the groups on the number of segments run slower in the hot vs cooler years.
For all groups, mean pace across the entire 161 km race was slower in 2006 than in 2007 (9:23 ± 1:13 min/km vs 8:42 ± 1:15 min/km, P < .001) and the pace was slower from the start of the race when temperatures were still relatively cool. Overall, the <22 h cohort ran slower in 2006 than 2007 over 12 of the 14 segments examined, the 22–24 h cohort was slower across 10 of the segments, and the >24 h cohort was slower across only 6 of the segments χ2 2 = 6.00, P = .050). Comparable pacing between the 2 y corresponded with onset of nighttime and cooling temperatures.
Extreme heat impairs all runners’ ability to perform in 161 km ultramarathons, but faster runners are at a greater disadvantage compared with slower competitors because they complete a greater proportion of the race in the hotter conditions.
Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein, and Douglas J. Casa
2000 to 2016 ( Wuebbles et al., 2017 ). It is expected that there will be a continuation of the pattern toward more frequent and severe extreme heat events across the globe ( Pachauri et al., 2014 , Perkins, 2015 ). Recent heat waves that affected the 2019 Women’s World Cup in France and forced
Kevin Lanza, Melody Alcazar, Casey P. Durand, Deborah Salvo, Umberto Villa, and Harold W. Kohl III
– 18 Our study also had similar findings to those investigating the temperature–shade relationship 20 , 24 including another study from the Green Schoolyards Project wherein researchers observed 11% more girls and 25% more boys under tree canopy during high temperatures. 20 During extreme heat
Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway, and Susan M. Shirreffs
extreme heat in which training and competition are likely to take place in Qatar, Tokyo, and other summer sporting venues of the future, the risks associated with dehydration could be amplified more than in previous years. This review focuses on the risks of dehydration and potential consequences to
Abdulla S. Al-Mohannadi, Abdulaziz Farooq, Angus Burnett, Mercia Van Der Walt, and Mohamed Ghaith Al-Kuwari
Little is known about the effects that climatic conditions, especially extreme heat, have on physical activity (PA) levels. The aim of this 2-year cohort analysis undertaken in the Arabian Gulf region was to assess changes in objectively-assessed PA as a result of changes in climatic conditions.
A total of 2088 adults (1390 men and 698 women) from many regions of the world were enrolled in a community health program in Qatar, were included in this study. For 2 years participants recorded daily step count using an Omron HJ-720 ITC pedometer. Daily climate parameters included temperature, relative humidity and other conditions.
From linear mixed model analysis it was evident that higher average temperature and humidity, and the Wet bulb Globe Temperature (WbGT), resulted in a reduction of the number of steps taken per day. Analysis of interaction effects also revealed that the effects of heat stress were equivalent across gender, age, and the region participants came from according to a World Health Organization classification scheme.
Increased temperature and humidity are associated with a reduction in the number of steps taken per day. Community-based PA programs in hot hot/humid climates should consider novel approaches to increase PA levels.
Stephen S. Cheung
potentially vital spice in the overall appeal of sports for the general public. But despite the competitions happening in the heat of summer every year, the Australian Open’s extreme heat policy is brief to the point of being meaningless, with any and all decisions left completely to the referee’s discretion
Madeleine Orr and Walker J. Ross
importantly, France, where more than 1,300 people died during the two heat waves ( Vautard et al., 2020 ). At the event, several games were played in extreme heat conditions, triggering a series of athlete- and fan-facing adaptations that were put in place at the last minute to ensure people’s safety
Gabriel Barreto, Gabriel P. Esteves, Felipe Miguel Marticorena, and Bryan Saunders
. PLoS One, 14 ( 1 ), e0211452 . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0211452 10.1371/journal.pone.0211452 Bartolomé , I. , Siquier-Coll , J. , Pérez-Quintero , M. , Robles-Gil , M.C. , Muñoz , D. , & Maynar-Mariño , M. ( 2021 ). Effect of handgrip training in extreme heat on the
Kevin Lanza, Brian Stone Jr, Paul M. Chakalian, Carina J. Gronlund, David M. Hondula, Larissa Larsen, Evan Mallen, and Regine Haardörfer
technological changes mitigate the health impact of extreme heat in Atlanta, GA; Detroit, MI; and Phoenix, AZ; and (2) the human health risk of power outages during periods of extreme heat. Atlanta, Detroit, and Phoenix were selected as study cities for their representation of different US climate regions and